Industrial Revolution

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Terms in this set (...)

Urbanization
Movement of people from rural areas to cities
Textiles
The first type of manufacturing to be industrialized in the 18th century.
Industrial Revolution
A period of rapid growth in the use of machines in manufacturing and production that began in the mid-1700s
enclosure
England, 1600s and 1700s, government took public lands and sold them off to private landowners--caused population shift toward the cities and a rise in agricultural productivity.
Agriculture Revolution
Farming techniques that led to greater food production
James Watt
Scottish engineer and inventor whose improvements in the steam engine led to its wide use in industry (1736-1819).
17 years old
average life span of a factory child laborer
Lowell, Massachusetts
Location of factories that hired single young farm women for textile production; offered options and increased independence for women of the time.
Stocks
Securities that represent part ownership or equity in a corporation; how large companies were first funded (i.e., railroads)
Socialism/Communism
Socialism is the social theory advocating community control of the means of production. Communism is the social system based on collective ownership of all productive property.
Captialism
an economic and political system in which a country's trade and industry are controlled by private owners for profit, rather than by the state.
Suffrage
the right to vote
Effects of the Industrial Revolution
Everyday goods are mass produced and cheaper, workers are exploited, workers go on strike, lower class moves into cities and are exploited, better roads/bridges/canals
Unions
organizations of skilled workers who bargain with employers as a group
Factory Act of 1833
British law designed to improve factory conditions and reduce child labor
People's Charter of 1838
petitioned for suffrage for all men and annual parliamentary elections
Irish Home Rule
Britain finally gave the Irish the power to self rule but the protestants and Catholics couldn't get along enough so it caused more problems.
Postponed by WWI.
Great Famine in Ireland (deaths)
1 million
Dominion of Canada
Unified Canadian government created by Britain to bolster Canadians against potential attacks or overtures from the United States.
Durham Report/recommendations
To unite Upper and Lower Canada to make the French a minority
Women's Social and Political Union
militant women's group whose goal was to draw attention to the cause of women's suffrage.
Australian colonization
Used as a way to lessen British prison over-crowding; first settled by inmates.
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Henry Ford
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production using the assembly line
Germ Theory of Disease
idea that infectious diseases are caused by bacteria; led lower infection rates and higher survival rates of surgical procedures
Thomas Edison
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
Marie Curie
Notable female Polish/French chemist and physicist. Won two Nobel Prizes. Did pioneering work in radioactivity.
Lassiez Faire
idea that government should stay out of business and economic affairs as much as possible
Karl Marx
founded ideas of communism. believe in a classless society
Utilitarianism
The theory, proposed by Jeremy Bentham in the late 1700s, that government actions are useful only if they promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people.
Rivers and Streams
the first factories were built near what geographic feature?
Factors of Production
Land, Labor, Capital ($)
Mine Act of 1842
limited women and children from working in the mines

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