Biology - Cell Cycle and Cancer Study Guide
Terms in this set (15)
1. When a cell grows larger, what happens to the surface area and volume of the cell?
The cell's volume increases faster than its surface area.
2. Why do large cells have more trouble moving needed material in and waste material out?
They become less efficient. The rate at which the exchange of materials entering and exiting depends on the surface area of the cell. The rate at which food and oxygen are used up depends on its volume. When a cell grows larger, the cell's volume increases faster than its surface area.
3. After mitosis occurs, how many chromosomes will the daughter cells have compared to the parent cell?
The same amount
4. What is the advantage genetically of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction?
sexual reproduction produces genetic diversity which helps ensure the survival of a species when the environment changes.
5. When in the cell cycle is DNA replicated?
DNA is replicated in the S or synthesis phase
6. What is mitosis?
division of cell nucleus (copies of chromosomes taken apart)
8. What is apoptosis? Provide examples.
Apoptosis is programmed cell death, injured or damaged cells, development
9. What regulates the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotes? List examples of internal and external regulators.
Cyclins, external - growth factors
10. What are cyclins?
Proteins that regulate timing of cell cycle
11. What is cancer?
Disease of uncontrolled cell division
12. How do cells "listen" to contact inhibition signals?
They stop dividing when they are one layer thick of cells and are surrounded by other cells
13. Explain the role of mutated oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in the formation of cancer.
Mutated oncogenes tell cells to keep dividing and mutated tumor suppressor genes don't stop cells from dividing.
14. What is differentiation and why is it important in multicellular organisms?
The process where cells become specialized, they need highly differentiated cells that carry out jobs we need to perform to stay alive
15. What are stem cells and why are they important?
Stem cells are unspecialized cells from which differentiated cells develop, they can possibly be used to repair or replace badly damaged cells and tissues
16. Identify the structure of a chromosome. Be able to identify sister chromatids and centromeres.
A centromere connects four sister chromatids.
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