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History 178: Midterm I
Terms in this set (32)
1717-1768 Theory of aesthetics and beauty.
Had notions of hierarchy with beauty
Johann Friedrich Blumbenbach
1775. Defined 5 races, all were denerations from Caucasion. Believed people could whiten (they could change). Man of the enlightenment.
1785. "Outline of a History of Mankind"
posited that there were beautiful and ugly races.
1770s invents "facial angle" for art students
Johann Kaspar Lavater
Physiognomy- faces reveals fixed and innate characteristics.
Johann Spurzheim and Franz
Phrenology- reading bumps on the head.
1853-1855"Inequality of the Races"
Says that race is the determining factor in human history. Defines Aryans as the master race. Did not believe in race mixing. Not actually an Anti-Semite but Hitler borrowed a lot from him. Race created culture and race mixing created chaos. race constructed based on the shape of skulls. Linguistics.
introduced link between race and way of being in the world- e.g. the Jewish spirit. There is something different about Jews. They are not European.
1878. Christian Socialist Workers Party. "What We Demand of Modern Jewry" Leads to the rise of other Anti-Semitic parties.
1850. "Judaism in Music" Jew incapable of cultural creativity. They only commodify other cultures.
1879. "Victory of the Jews over the Germans" Sees the end of history in terms of the defeat of the Germans by the Jews in the Race War. Invented the term Anti-Semitism. Argues that the Jews are tougher than the Germans because of racial characteristics.
1887. "Handbook of the Jewish Question" Sounded similar to Hitler's Mein Kamf. Used biological and violent language with grand notions of Jewish destiny.
House Steward Chamberlain
1899"Foundation of the Nineteenth Century" Saw history as a struggle between Aryan and Semitic races. Predicted a race war. Obsessive Anti-Semite.
Jewish captain in France accused of treason. Has to do with idea that people saw Jews as having dual loyalty.
Lanz von Libenfels
1847-1954 Founded "Ostara" an anti-semitic pornographic magazine/newsletter
Guido von List
focus on flaunting/worship of bodies. Developing Aryan bodies
Georg von Schonerer
Late 19th century political figure. Coming to save German Volk. Wanted to unite German speaking Austria with Germany.
Late 19th century political figure. Christian Social Party. Became mayor of Vienna on an Anti-Semitic platform.
first political Zionist. thought that Jews should have their own nation.
Jewish, head of the raw material department during WW1. Blamed for food shortages etc.
different races are actually different biological species.
relgious thinking. all people derived from a single source, adam and eve.`
Kaustos-consumed by fire
most beautiful, most ideal example of art. becomes the European every man aginst whih all beauty is measured`
in the 19th centur anthropology turns into race science. it is believed that science and numbers dont lie. 4 essential features:
1. race is an objective category and it is a naturally occurring division of humanity.
2. success and failure of certain cultures is connected to race.
3. race explains behavior
4.race reflects moral character an initelligence.
belief that looking at the face you can tell certain characteristics of a person and fixed innate characteristics. Lavater.
Spurzheim and Franz. Reading bumps on the head. became a part of populat culture. certain parts of the brain determine different characteristics.
jewification, referring to the idea that Jews had taken over as a result of emancipation, especially in germany after 1871
implies a racial or biological link. different groups formed based on this ideaology but all bound by anti-Semitism
treaty of Versaille
Germany loses everything
responsibility of Germany and allies for the war
stab in the back.
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