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Ancient Rome Midterm

Terms in this set (90)

- at about the same time as the First Samnite War the Latin War marked the end of autonomy for LAtin cities.
- Fearing Roman encroachment, some of these cities joined to oppose Rome, an event that Roman authors later would portray as a revolt
- The Latins received some assistance from Volscian and Campanian communities, while the Samnites had interests that seemed to align with supporting Rome i the war.
- In 340 the Roman's won a major victory in northern Campania
- by 338 the war had essentially ended
- Latin cities loss of autonomy was the most important outcome of this war
- the victors ended all alliance and religious associations that had linked the inhabitants of various Latin cities, and shifted the responsibility of maintaining many of the cults that had been shared by a number of Latin towns to Rome officials
- The Romans also bound each town directly to Rome alone
- Most Latin communities were incorporated directly into the Roman state, just as Veii had been almost half a century earlier
- their citizens became Roman citizens and their land Roman territory
- their urban centres remained as units of no more than local government with restricted freedom of action
- such towns were called municipia
- A few Latin communities- in particular Tibur and Praenest, the largest ones - did maintain a formal independence and were not absorbed directly into the Roman citizen body
- They became Roman allies, were completely sorrounded by Roman territory and were no longer capable of any independent action
- traditional Latin rights of intermarriage, contract and ownership of land, and of migration after this point could now only be exercised with Rome, since there was to be no further interaction between Latin communities
- 264-241
- This first war broke out as a result of a three-way struggle between Carthage, Rome, and Syracuse over the strategic city of Messana, which controlled the straits between Italy and Sicily
- Initially Carthage and Syracuse vied to get influence their while Rome was hesitant to intervene
- the senate was divided over the issue, but one of the consuls of 264 successfully proposed to a citizen assembly that Messana be given Roman protection
- Hostilities escalated in 263, when Rome sent out both consuls, with a large force or Romans and allies.
- When it advanced into Syracusan territory, the king of the city Hiero, negotiated peace terms and became Rome's ally
- the consuls then proceeded west to the besieged city of Agrigentum and drove off a large Carthaginian force, captured it in 262 the city, plundered it, and sold thousands of the citizens into slavery
- The Carthaginians meanwhile replaced their commander with Hamilcar Barca, who would continue to command the Carthaginian forces on the island for the res of the war
- After the capture of Agrigentum by the Romans a period of stalemate ensued
- some cities that had previously joined the Romans now returned to the Carthaginian side, and Rome had trouble taking any coastal cities because Carthage's large navy was able to kee supplying them with provisions
- The Roman's responded to this by building their first navy, copying Carthaginian methods, of 100 warships and they would proceed to build many more over the coarse of the war
- Even with this fleet the war was still very "see-saw" with Roman forces and Carthaginian both winning battles and losing battles
- In 241, the Carthaginians exhausted by the ordeal of the war, finally allowed their general Hamilcar the authority to negotiate a peace deal
- the result was they agreed to leave Sicily and pay Rome a large indemnity
- hostilities didn't stop their however for at the end of the war the Carthaginians had insufficient funds to pay their mercenaries
- the result was a massive revolt, and though they eventually stabilized the situation, Rome took the opportunity to invade and capture Sardinia while Carthage was busy.
- born in 185 or 184
- He was adopted by Publius Cornelius Scipio, the son of Scipio Africanus, who had defeated Hannibal
- Scipio Aemilianus first served as consul in 147
- In the previous year he had initially sought election as an aedile, but popular discontent over the failure of Roman generals to achieve a quick victory over Carthage in the Third Punic War that was going on at the time prompted him to exploit the opportunity, and so he switched his candidacy to the consular election
- His success here was extraordinary
- He was considerably below the minimum age for a consul and had yet to hold office as a praetor; he was, in other words, just the type of candidate the laws regarding the cursus honorum sought to bar.
- though the senate attempted to bar this, widespread protests and a demand by some in the assembly that the people possessed the right to elect whoever they wished made the senate give way
- When they tried to hand out provinciae by lots, the normal procedure, a tribune intervened again proposing a citizen vote instead, in which Scipio Aemilianus was given command over the war against Carthage
- His ability to get elected, considering his age and experience, rested somewhat on the popular support he was somehow able to get
- Later on in his career he would show the same willingness to rely on popular support, when he attempted to be elected censor in 142
- According to Plutarch Scipio instead of surrounding himself with prominent supporters when he went around the Forum garnering for support, he surrounded himself with low birth and was able to get enough support because of this
- In 135 he again sought election as consul
- his success in the Third Punic War meant he was able to use his immense military prestige to get support for his election, especially considering Rome was having issues with Numantia in Spain
- this bid for a second consulship went against a law that had banned anyone from holding an office twice (because of a certain individual who had held the position of consul three times in a row), and he somehow got around it
- tribune in 133
- raised by his mother Cornelia exclusively after his father died in 150
- As soon as he began his term as tribune he introduced a law regulating the use of the "public lands of the Roman people", in other words lands seized in Rome's various wars, but not yet distributed to settlers or leased to provide revenue
- His most important action was his land reform, also known as the Gracchan agrarian law
- the law was meant in large part to address the flight of small scale farmers into the city because their land was being taken away as the number of slave-run states expanded
- Tiberius's chief opponent when trying to get his law passed was another tribune, Marcus Octavius
- Unable to sway Marcus Octavius, Tiberius tried to remove his opponent from office, and in an unprecedented turn of events he was successful
- The agrarian law then passed but his opponents out of spite made sure that it received the bare minimum of funding it required to operate
- by coincidence word reached Rome that Attalus III, the king of Pergamum, had died and bequeathed his kingdom to the Romans in his will
- Tiberius immediately seized the opportunity, and got the Plebeain assembly to pass a law granting the treasury of Attalus over to the triumvirs responsible for running the land commission
- Tiberius then declared that he would run for reelection as a tribune, another act without any supposed precedent
- his reflection was not to be however as during the reelection process however a group of senators attacked Tiberius and his supporters with wooden cudgels. They preceded to beat Tiberius to death with a broken off stool leg, and according to one account kill 200-300 of his supporters
- In the aftermath the senate set up a series of fake courts to "investigate" and punish any supporters of Tiberius Gracchus that were left.
- sought the tribunate for 123, which he achieved in large part because of the popularity of his brother Tiberius that still existed
- Gaius introduced a number of laws, covering a wide range of matters including
1. a law that prescribed a capital sentence for any magistrate who had imposed a capital sentence as result of a investigation that had not been authorized by the vote of a citizen assembly. This law aimed directly at the biased courts set up by the senate after Tiberius's death to punish his supporters.
2. a law that imposed the death penalty on anyone serving as a judge in some quaestio (investigation), who accepted a bribe to declare an innocent person guilty
3. he renewed his brothers land law with some new modifications, the chief one being that the commissioners no longer had the power to determine what land was "public" and which were private
4. later on he would pass laws that secured the creation of several colonies in Italy and one (to be named Junonia) in North Africa on the site of Carthage
5. a grain subsidy law, that guaranteed citizens the right to purchase in Rome a set amount of grain each month at a fixed price
5. a law forcing senators to decide before elections the provinces that would be allocated between the new consuls
6. a law making it so that taxes in the new province of Asia would be collected by Roman publican bidding for contracts at Rome
7. a law that forced juries in the standing courts to be made up of equites, not senators as they had been before
- Gaius would go on for a second term in which he would unsuccessfully propose a law extending Roman citizenship to all Latins
- He would fail to get his law passed because of the actions of Marcus Livius Drusus, a tribune approached for assistance by Gaius Gracchus's opponents, and the bad timing of his trip to oversee the creation of the colony he pushed to get created on the site of Carthage
- When Gaius tried to get a third term as tribune for 121, he failed and once he was out of office several individuals began to work on repealing some of his legislation
- An attempt to repeal the law authorizing the foundation of the colony at the site of Carthage started the final confrontation, with Gaius (and a supporter named Flaccus) appearing at the assembly where one of the tribunes was trying to get support for repealing the law.
- At this assembly a confrontation between the two sides came to be and a herald of the consul was killed.
- Gaius and his supporters then withdrew to the Aventine hill, and the consul (Opimius) attacked them.
- Gaius Gracchus committed suicide
- In 100 Marius again needed help in rewarding veterans- this time those that had defeated the Cimbri and Teutoni
- Marius was willing to have Saturninus act on his behalf
- Saturninius's legislative proposals were exceptionally wide ranging, and quite predictably invoked opposition
- not only did he want to settle Marius's veteran he wanted to found colonies and allocate land in Greece and Sicily for veterans of campaigns which had recently ended there
- if approved these initiatives would have made him very influential
- If this was not enough, his opponents were offended because he added a clause that required all senators to take an oath to respect the law within five days of its passage, or else face a crippling fine and expulsion from the senate.
- the opposition also found fault with the right of Marius to give Roman citizenship to a small number of settlers in each of these new colonies and they insinuated he wanted to possibly extend citizenship far more widely
- though the opposition tried everything to block the proposals Saturninius brushed them aside, and when it looked like the assemblies were not going to let it pass, Marius' veterans were deployed to keep hostile voters away by force, and they in turn reacted violently. The veterans made sure, with violence, that the proposals were passed however
- next Saturninius achieved his own election as tribune for 99, and then overstretched himself trying to get an associate named Glaucia into the position of consul
- on election day Marius rejected Glaucia's candidacy since it did not meet legal requirements, and Saturninius preceded to have his followers beat a rival candidate to deat, and tried to have a law passed permitting Glaucia's candidacy
- the senate used its "ultimate decree" instructing the consuls to secure the safety of the state
- Marius, still at this time not against the senate, took their side and captured his ex-associates
- Marius had them confined in the senate house, and a lynch mob quickly formed which tore the tiles of the roof and beat Saturninius and Glaucia to death with them.
- Marius would not be politically active again until an extraordinary turn of events in the 80s BCE
- Sulla enacted several reforms before retiring
1. Sulla doubled the size of the senate to around 600
2. He increased the number of praetorships to two
3. He revived old traditions barring who could run for office and when. These were...
i) only ex-quaestors were eligible for the praetorship and only ex-praetors for the consulship
ii)these successive offices could not be held before the ages of thirty (quaestors), thirty-nine (praetorship), and forty-two (consulship
iii) there must be a ten year interval between holding any office again
4. He made the tribunate a dead end office, making anyone who served as one debarred from standing for any other office, and the tribunes authority was drastically curtailed
5. Sulla struck the equites a further blow by excluding them from membership of the juries in the jury courts (questions)
6. Sulla added seven other courts to deal with other issues beyond the inquiries into governing that the repetundae courts dealt with
7. He abolished the grain subsidy first introduced by Gaius Gracchus
8. He confiscated land from a wide array of areas which had opposed him to settle his veterans on
9. Sulla revived restrictions on governors activity, making it so that only with prior authorization could a governor make a war or leave his province, and that he must leave the province within 30 days of his successors arrival there.
- After enacting these laws Sulla's program was quickly dismantled, and with it the last hopes of the republic from surviving in the future.
- The first trimvirate was formed between Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey
- all of them had issues and were being blocked by the senate
- Crassus wanted to achieve more clients by supporting a defaulting group of tax collectors tasked with collecting in the province of Asia
- Pompey had massive amount of military prestige, and a loyal following of veterans which he needed to settle on land
- Julius Caesar, was an up and coming influential figure who wanted their help to get into office and in return would pass the legislation both wanted
- Caesar got the consulship of 59, and in accordance to the agreement he had made with Pompey and Crassus began to pass legislation that helped them
- The triumvirate worked very well until Caesar left for his campaign in Cisalpine Gaul and Illyricum, at which point it became stressed
- Cicero began opposing them at every turn, and Pompey suspected Crassus of supporting Cato and the now liability Clodius
- The tribunate was renewed in its resolve after a meeting held at Luca
- the meeting resulted in them agreeing to have the forthcoming elections postponed until after the campaigning season, and then Pompey and Crassus would stand for the consulship, with some of Caesars soldiers being sent back to make sure their opponent lost the vote
- Once consuls they would arrange to extend Caesar's term in Gaul, and arrange long term military campaigns for themselves
- this would free them from possible prosecution as well as they wouldn't have to leave an office
- Pompey got Spain and
- These hopes would not be fulfilled for Crassus was killed in Syria