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57 terms

Skeletal Tissues

STUDY
PLAY
Long bones
Femur and humerus
short bones
carpals and tarsals
flat bones
ribs, pelvis, sternum, skull
irregular bones
vertebrae, facial bones
Sesamoid bones
patella
Diaphysis and Epiphyses
seperated by epiphysis plate
Diaphysis
main shaft, compact bone for support
Epiphyses
ends with spongy bone; has red marrow, tendon muscle attachment
Articular cartilage
hyaline, cartilage, covers joints; cushion
periosteum
covers bones; attaches tendons
medullary cavity
yellow marrow (fat)
endosteum
lines medullary cavity
inorganic salts
calcium and phosphate crystals
Calcification
Deposit crystals
measuring bone mineral density
osteoporosis (indicator)
organic matrix
fibers, protein, polgysaccharides, chondrotin sulfate and gulcosamine for repair (over the counter)
Compact bone
...
Osteon
unit of compact bone
lamellae
concentric rings of calcified matrix
lacunae
spaces with bone cells
canaliculi
connect lacunae
haversian canal (central canal)
blood vessels and nerves (longitdunal (length))
perforating canal (volkmann canals)
blood vessels and nerves (horizontal) connect haversian canals
Cancellous bone
no osteons or haversian system
spicules
needlelike bondy structure; line along lines of stress
trabeculae
network made of spicules
types of bone cells
osteoblasts, clasts, and cytes
osteoblasts
bone forming cells
osteoclasts
active erosion of bone; breaks down bone cells
osteocytes
mature nondividing osteoblasts
bone marrow
myeloid tissue, red marrow, yellow marrow
myeloid tissue
...
red marrow
produce red blood cells (RBC) adults - ribs vertrabe humerus, femur and pelvis
yellow bone
replace red marrow, cell filled with fat
Functions of bone
support, protection, movement, mineral storage, hematoposeiss
Movement
join and muscle attachment
mineral storage
calcium and phosporous
hematopoesis
blood cell formation (red marrow)
machanisms of calc homeostasis
parayhtroid hormon, calcitonin
parathyroid hormone
increase calcium absorpotion (From intestine to blood) stiumlate oesteoclasts and releace calcium in blood
calcitonin
stimulate depression of osteoblasts (build bone by having calciuim from blood and into bone matrix)
Development of bone
intramembranous ossifiction, endochondral
intramembranous
formed with in tissue membrane, added to outer surface (oppositiional growth)
Endochondral ssification
Formed in cartilage - most bones form this way
Primary ossification center
middle of diaphysis
Secondary ossifc center
in epiphysis
Epiphyseal plate
(growth plate- add length to bones) carilage btw epi and diaphysis adds cartilage as you grow = then osisfied. Reduced thru childhood and and absent as adult
Bone growth and resorption
To incraese diameter - osteoclasts enlarge medullary cavity and osteoblasts built to outsides
stages of repair
Formation of fracture hematoma
formation of callus
bone remodeling
Formation of fracture hematoma
form blood clot
Formation of callus
temp. bind broken ends
bone remodeling
esteoclasts break down callus and osteoblasts replace w/ normal bone)
Types of cartilage
Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
Hyaline cartilage
most abdundant (Ribs, sternum, and trachea, nose)
elastic cartilage
elastic fibers (ear, epiglottis)
fibrocartilage
mostly collagen fibers (pubic symphysis, vertebral disc)