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Long bones

Femur and humerus

short bones

carpals and tarsals

flat bones

ribs, pelvis, sternum, skull

irregular bones

vertebrae, facial bones

Sesamoid bones


Diaphysis and Epiphyses

seperated by epiphysis plate


main shaft, compact bone for support


ends with spongy bone; has red marrow, tendon muscle attachment

Articular cartilage

hyaline, cartilage, covers joints; cushion


covers bones; attaches tendons

medullary cavity

yellow marrow (fat)


lines medullary cavity

inorganic salts

calcium and phosphate crystals


Deposit crystals

measuring bone mineral density

osteoporosis (indicator)

organic matrix

fibers, protein, polgysaccharides, chondrotin sulfate and gulcosamine for repair (over the counter)

Compact bone



unit of compact bone


concentric rings of calcified matrix


spaces with bone cells


connect lacunae

haversian canal (central canal)

blood vessels and nerves (longitdunal (length))

perforating canal (volkmann canals)

blood vessels and nerves (horizontal) connect haversian canals

Cancellous bone

no osteons or haversian system


needlelike bondy structure; line along lines of stress


network made of spicules

types of bone cells

osteoblasts, clasts, and cytes


bone forming cells


active erosion of bone; breaks down bone cells


mature nondividing osteoblasts

bone marrow

myeloid tissue, red marrow, yellow marrow

myeloid tissue


red marrow

produce red blood cells (RBC) adults - ribs vertrabe humerus, femur and pelvis

yellow bone

replace red marrow, cell filled with fat

Functions of bone

support, protection, movement, mineral storage, hematoposeiss


join and muscle attachment

mineral storage

calcium and phosporous


blood cell formation (red marrow)

machanisms of calc homeostasis

parayhtroid hormon, calcitonin

parathyroid hormone

increase calcium absorpotion (From intestine to blood) stiumlate oesteoclasts and releace calcium in blood


stimulate depression of osteoblasts (build bone by having calciuim from blood and into bone matrix)

Development of bone

intramembranous ossifiction, endochondral


formed with in tissue membrane, added to outer surface (oppositiional growth)

Endochondral ssification

Formed in cartilage - most bones form this way

Primary ossification center

middle of diaphysis

Secondary ossifc center

in epiphysis

Epiphyseal plate

(growth plate- add length to bones) carilage btw epi and diaphysis adds cartilage as you grow = then osisfied. Reduced thru childhood and and absent as adult

Bone growth and resorption

To incraese diameter - osteoclasts enlarge medullary cavity and osteoblasts built to outsides

stages of repair

Formation of fracture hematoma

formation of callus

bone remodeling

Formation of fracture hematoma

form blood clot

Formation of callus

temp. bind broken ends

bone remodeling

esteoclasts break down callus and osteoblasts replace w/ normal bone)

Types of cartilage

Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage

Hyaline cartilage

most abdundant (Ribs, sternum, and trachea, nose)

elastic cartilage

elastic fibers (ear, epiglottis)


mostly collagen fibers (pubic symphysis, vertebral disc)

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