Ancient Rome Test
Terms in this set (42)
-One of the memebrs of the First Triumvirate
-Had a military command in Spain like Pompey
-Joined forces with Crassus and Pompey in 60 B.C.
Octavian's great uncle and father through adoption
-Recieved a special miltary command in Gaul (modern France)
-Conquered Gaul and gained fame,wealth, and military experience as well as an army of seasoned veterans who were loyal to him.
-Voted by the leading senators to lay down his command and return as a private citizen to Rome
-Marched on Rome and defeated the forces of Pompey and his allies, leaving him in complete control of the Roman government
-Officially made dictator in 47 B.C.E.
-Casear's ally and assistant
-Allied himslef closely with the Egyptian queen
-At the Battle of Actium, the queen and his army and navy were smashed by Octavian's forces
- The two of them fled to Egypt and commited suicide a year later.
Large landed estates in Roman Empire
The greatest of the Cathrigan generals whose striking back against the Romans' attack by Spanish allies started the Punic War and crossed the Alps with an army of 30,000 to 4,000 men inflicting a series of defeats on the Romans. His forces were crushed by the Romans at the Battle of Zama
Romulus and Remus
Twin brothers who, according to legend, founded Rome.
-Freely eliminated people he wanted out of his way, including his own mother, whose murder he arranged.
- Chose to commit suicide by stabbing himslef in the throat, uttering " What an artist the world is losing in me!"
After the struggle of the orders, and as a direct result of the wealthiest citizens always maintaining a majority in the Roman Senate, what came to be?
Council of plebs
Spartan Slave Revolt
Breaking out in southern Italt, this revolt involved 70,000 slaves and was where Spartacus managed to defeat several Roman armies before being trapped and killed. Six thousand of his followers were crucified.
Elected the tribunes
The three groups of Roman citizens
- The Senate
Who had the right to vote in the Roman Republic?
All adult male citizens
After Rome attempted to retreat to their fortified cities in the Second Punic War, how did Hannibal respond?
Terrorizing the southern countryside of Italy
Great landowners who became the ruling class in the Roman Republic and constituted an aristocratic governing class. Only they could be magistrates, consuls, and senators
Along with Julius casear and Pompey, who was part of the original First Triumvirate?
-Murdered in 133 B.C.E. by a group of senators
-Chosen as Augustus' successor as his stepson
-Brother of Gaius, who with him, came to believe that the underlying cause of Rome's problems was the decline of small farmers and to help the landless poor bypassed the senate by having the council of plebs pass land reform bills that called for the government to reclaim public land held by large landowners and to distribute it to the landless.
What led to tension between Rome and carthage, prior to the Punic Wars?
-Romans feared that Carthage would dominate the Mediterranean
-Carthage feared that the Romans would take their colonies and markets
-One of the first members of the First Triumvirate
-Returned from a successful military command in Spain in 71 B.C.E. and had been hailed as a military hero
-Recieved a command in Spain
-Endorsed as the less harmful to their cause by leading senators
Why was the Third Punic War started by Rome with Carthage?
Carthage was in technical breach of an agreement with Rome when they asked to defend themselves against an enemy.
A general who was ,assacred in 9 C>E> by a coalition of German tribes. His defeats in Germany taught Augustus that Rome's power was not limited, devastating him
Council of plebs
In the Roman Republic, a council only for the plebians. Afrer 287 B.C.E., its resolutions were binding on all Romans.
-The age of him was often called the golden age of Latin literature
-"The revered one"
-Maintained a standing army of 28 legion( about 150,000)
-Responsible for setting a praetorian guard of roughly 9,000 men who had the important of guarding the emperor
-While claiming to have restored the Republic, inaugurated a new system for governing the provinces.
-His authority enabled him to overrule the senatorial governors and established a uniform imperial policy
-Stablized the frontiers of the Roman Empire
-Died in 14 C.E. after dominating the Roman world for 45 years.
-Conquered the Alps and expanded Roman control of the Balkan peninsula up to the Danube River
Commander in chief
Members of the 2nd Triumvirate
Octavian,Lepidus, and Marc Anthony
What happened during the spilt of the 2nd Triumvirate?
The Battle of Actium occured, Octavian built power in Italy,and Marc Anthony conquered Asia Minor and then, in Egypt, joined Cleopatra
What did the Second Triumvirate do?
Partition Rome and made changes in the government
When was the Second Triumvirate together?
They were together during the Battle of Philippi
-Member of the Second Triumvirate
-Built power in Italy during the Triumvirate's split
-With his victories, peace finally settled on the Roman world
-In 27 B.C.E., proclaimed the restoration of the Republic.
-Given the title Augustus from his victories during the civil conflict that rocked the Republic after Caesar's assassination
-Was aware that the Republic couldn;t be fully restored but gave some power to the senate
-Became the first Roman emperor
- Chief source of power: His continuing control of the army
-Captured Alexandria during his war with Anthony and Cleopatra
-Called himself princeps
When did the members of the First Triumvirate except for Gaius join forces ?
They joined forces in 60 B.C.
Members of the First Triumvirate
-Original (Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Gaius)
Were responsible for governing with the advice of the Senate and had the power to veto laws made by te Senate in order to create a system of "checks and balances"
-The last of the Kings of early Rome
-People who lived north of Rome in Etruia
-Built temples, markets, streets, houses,shops, etc.
Why was Rome successful against Carthage in the First Punic War?
They quickly built a Navy
First code of laws that was designed for a simple farming society and proved inadequate for later needs.
-From it,the Romans developed a system of civil wars that applied to all citizens.
"Rule of Three"
The chief popular assembly of the Roman Republic . It passed laws and elected the chief magistrates
- Assisted in the court system
- The two senior Roman judges who had executed authoirty when the consuls were away from the city and could also lead armies.
The leading council of the Roman Republic composed of about three hundred men (senators) who served for life and dominated much of the political life of the Republic
Tribunes of plebs
Beginning in 494 B.C.E., Roman officials who were given the power to protect plebians against arrest by patrician magistrates.
Created in 338 B.C.E., the entire military manpower of all Italy for its wars was mobilized by Rome by insisting on military services from the allies in this organization.
The traditional form of execution for slaves in Rome.
The class of Roman citizens who included non-patrician landowners, craftspeople, small farmers, and merchants in the Roman Republic. Their struggle for equal rights witht the patricians dominated much of the Republic's history.
-Major changes in recriutment came wioth his military reforms during the first century B.C.E.
-A Roman general who, in the closing years of the second century B.C.E., began to recruit his armies in a new way.
-Recruited volunteers from both the urban and rural poor who possessed no property.