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Bio Chapter 17
Starred definitions are open ended answers.
Terms in this set (32)
________________: all the genes, including all the different alleles for each gene, present in a population at any one time.
___________________: number of times that an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of alleles in that pool for the same gene.
Evolution, in genetic terms, involves a change in the _______________ in a population over time.
Three sources of _______________ are mutation, genetic recombination during sexual reproduction, and lateral gene transfer.
The number of _________________ produced for a trait depends on how many genes control the trait.
___________________: trait controlled by one gene that has two alleles.
__________________: trait controlled by two or more genes.
Natural selection on single-gene traits can lead to changes in ______________ and, thus, to changes in phenotype frequencies.
__________________: form of natural selection in which individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve.
_________________: form of natural selection in which individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at the other end of the curve.
________________: natural selection in which individuals at the upper and lower ends of the curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle of the curve.
In small populations, individuals that carry a particular allele may leave more ________________ than other individuals leave, just by chance.
Over time, a series of ______________ can cause an allele to become more or less common in a population.
__________________: random change in allele frequency caused by a series of chance occurrences that cause an allele to become more o less common in a population
_______________: a change in allele frequency following a dramatic reduction in the size of a population
_________________: a change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population.
_________________: situation in which allele frequencies in a population remain the same.
________________: principle that states that allele frequencies in a population remain constant unless one or more factors cause those frequencies to change.
Hardy-Weinberg principle predicts that five conditions can disturb genetic equilibrium and cause evolution to occur:
small population size
immigration or emigration
_______________: When individuals select mates based on heritable traits.
_______________: a group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring.
______________: formation of a new species.
When populations become _____________, they can evolve into two separate species.
Reproductive isolation can develop in a variety of ways, including ______________, ___________________, and __________________.
*behavioral isolation, geographic isolation, and temporal isolation.
____________________: separation of a species or population so that they no longer interbreed and evolve into two separate species.
_________________: form of reproductive isolation in which two populations develop differences in courtship rituals or other behaviors that prevent them from breeding.
________________: form of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated by geographic barriers such as rivers, mountains, or bodies of water, leading to the formation of two separate subspecies.
______________: form of reproductive isolation in which two or more species reproduces at different times.
____________ in Galapagos finches occurred by founding of a new population, geographic isolation, changes in the new population's gene pool, behavioral isolation, and ecological competition.
______________: method used b researchers that uses mutation rates in DNA to estimate the length of time that two species have been evolving independently.
One way in which new genes evolve is through the _______________, of existing genes.
duplication and then modification
Small changes in Hox gene activity during embryological development can produce - _______________.
large changes in adult animals.
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