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edict of Nantes

grant of tolerance to Protestants in France in 1598, ended civil war between Catholic and Protestant factions

Thirty Years' War

war between German protestants and their allies (Sweden, Denmark, France) and the emperor and his ally, Spain within Holy Roman Empire, ended in 1648 with Treaty of Westphilia

Treaty of Westphalia

ended Thirty Years' War in 1648, granted rights to rulers to choose their own religion: Protestant or Catholic

English Civil War

war caused by religious disputes and issues over powers of the monarchy from 1640 to 1660, ended with restoration of monarchy and execution of previous king


product of 16th and 17th century economic changes in Europe;
working class: manufacturing workers, paid laborers in agricultural economy or urban poor
no property

witchcraft persecution

reflected resentments against religious uncertainties and the poor, cause of death of 100000+ Europeans, common in Protestant areas

Scientific Revolution

period of empirical advances associated with wider theoretical generalizations due to changes in traditional beliefs of Middle Ages; peaked in 17th c.


Polish monk and astronomer
disproved Hellenistic belief that earth was at center of universe


published Copernicus works combined with his own discoveries of gravity and planetary motion
condemned by Catholic church

John Harvey

English physician who demonstrated blood circulation in animals, heart functions as pump

Rene Descartes

established importance of skeptical view on received wisdom; argued that human reasons can develop laws that explain nature

Isaac Newton

English scientist, author of Principia; drew astronomical, physical observations and theories of natural laws; established principles of motion and forces of gravity


concept of God during Scientific Revolution: divinity created natural laws, not controlling it

John Locke

English philosopher who argued that the 5 senses and reasons can help to learn everything, power of government came from people, not divine rights; offered revolutions to overthrow tyrants

absolute monarchy

concept of government during rise of nation-states in western Europe in 17th c.
monarch passed laws, appointed armies and bureaucracies, imposed state economic policies without parliaments

Louis XIV

French monarch who practiced absolute monarchy

Glorious Revolution

English overthrow of James II in 1688; affirmed parliament's basic power over the king

parliamentary monarchy

originated in England and Holland; kings checked by legislative powers in parliaments

Frederick the Great

Prussian king, attempted to introduce Enlightenment reforms into Germany, built on military and bureaucratic foundations of predecessors, granted freedom of religion, increased state economic control


Intellectual movement in France during 18th c.
scientific advances, apply scientific method to study of society; belief that rational laws describe social behaviors.

Adam Smith

established liberal economics; argued that government should avoid economic regulation in favor of market forces' operation

Mary Wollstonecraft

Enlightenment feminist thinker in England who argued that political rights should extend to woman.

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