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98 terms

Positive Stranded RNA viruses: Picorna, Toga, Flavi, Calci, Corona

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non-enveloped icosahedral
is Picornaviridae enveloped or non-enveloped and what is the shape
eneveloped icosahedral
is Togaviridae enveloped or non-enveloped and what is the shape
enveloped icoshedral
is Flaviviridae enveloped or non-enveloped and what is the shape
non-enveloped icosahedral
is Calicviridae enveloped or non-enveloped and what is the shape
enveloped icosahedral
is Coronaviridae enveloped or non-enveloped and what is the shape
picornaviridae, togaviridae, flaviviridae, calciviridae, coronaviridae
what viruses share similar features and they include replication in the cytoplasm, genomic RNA serves as mRNA, genomic RNA's are not segmented, virions do not contain enzymes and virus proteins are synthesized as polyproteins.
picornaviridae
what virus has the following characteristics:
-Small naked non-enveloped
-Icosahedral
-Single -stranded non- segmented RNA genome
-Four Structural proteins
enterovirus, rhinovirus, and hepatovirus
which of the genera of picornoviridae causes clinical syndromes in humans
cardioviruses
which of the genera of picornoviridae causes encephalitis and myocarditis in mice
aphthoviruses
which of the genera of picornoviridae causes foot and mouth disease in cattle
enterovirus
seventy of this genus have been identified and all may cause CNS disease and are the major cause of acute aspetic meningitis
viral meningitis
enterovirus accounts for 75,000 cases of what in the US per year
enterovirus
what is caused by ingestion of contaminated food and water
enterovirus
what is stable at the low pH of the stomach and then replicates in the GI tract the virus is then shed in the stool so its mode of transmission is the fecal-oral route
organs
after enterovirus replication the virus can enter the blood and spread to where
asymptomatic
most of the enterovirus infections have what symptoms and result in protective immunity
enterovirus
what virus bind to specific host cell receptors.
The mechanism of genome replication and translation is the Type I RNA virus process
acute aseptic meningitis
what is enterovirus the major cause of and the viral form is milder than the bacterial form
lymphocytes
in the viral form of acute aseptic meningitis what is elevated in the CSF
glucose
what in the CSF is not decreased when suffering from an acute aseptic meninggitis
7-10
how long do acute aseptic meningitis cases of enterovirus last and the patient usually recovers completely afterwards
polimyelitis
poliovirus usually causes an acute illness known as what which destroys motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord
polimyelitis
what results in muscle weakness or paralysis. No cases of paralytic version of this are due to wild-type infection have been seen in the USA in more than 20 years.
asymptomatic, abortive, nonparalytic, and paralytic
the poliovirus can be divided into what four groups
postpoliomyelitis syndrome
20-30% of pts who recover from paralytic poliomyelitis experience muscle weakness, pain, atrophy, and fatigue 25 to 35 yrs after acute illness. what is this called
asymptomatic
what symptoms do most poliomyelitis infections exhibit
abortive poliomyelitis
what involves a nonspecific febrile illness that spares the CNS and spontaneously resolves after a few days. temperature is not higher than 103* and patients report a minor febrile upper respiratory infection with nausea and diarrhea
nonparalytic poliomyelitis
what presents in the same manner as patients with abortive poliovirus but it progresses to aspetic meningitis and during the initial flulike illness, patients report stiffness in the posterior neck muscles, limbs, and trunk. this minor viremia is followed by nuchal and spinal rigidity the hallmark of this infection
paralytic poliomyelitis
what starts with a nonspecific febrile illness and muscle weakness that resolves after 2-3 days but is followed by a sudden onset of asymmetric flaccid paralysis. pain, nuchal rigidity, and hypertonia are indicators of brainstem, spinal ganglia, and posterior column involvement.
bulbar poliomyelitis
what involes the speech and central cardiorespiratory centers of the brain stem and can cause death because of cessation of cardiac and respiratory activity
salk
what type of polio vaccine is the killed vaccine
sabin
what type of polio vaccine is the live attenuated vaccine
70 and 71
which types of enterovirus causes severe CNS disease
70
which type of enterovirus causes acute extremely contagious hemorrhagic conjunctivitis
WHO
Vaccine-associated paralysis can be associated with the live-attenuated form of poliovirus therefore, the ____ is working towards using the inactivated killed virus in their global program.
Rotary Club International
what has played and continues to play large role in international vaccination programs.
Coxsackievirus and Echovirus
the clinical significance of what two viruses are upper respiratory tract infections, gastroenteritis, myocarditis, and meningitis
rhinovirus
what causes the common cold
rhinovirus
what virus is acid-liable and replicates in the nasal passages at less than core body temperature
respiratory droplets and hand to hand contact
there are more than 100 serotypes of the rhinovirus and they can be spread how
hand washing
what is the best prevention to rhinovirus
rhinovirus
what are these symptoms of:
-runny/blocked nose
-sneezing
-sore throat
-cough
-sinus pain
-earache
-fever
-anoerxia
-tiredness, muscle pains/aches
hepatovirus
what virus has the only member of this group being the hepatitis A virus (HAV)
fecal-oral, undercooked shellfish (that has been contaminated by sewage water)
how is Hepatitis A virus transmitted
hepatocyte
with HAV where does the virus replicate and the symptoms appear after one month and they include fatigues, nausea, vomitin, abdominal pain, apetite loss, dark urin, muscle pain, itching, and jaundice
hepatovirus
for what virus is the prognosis favorable and persistent infection and chronic hepatitis is uncommon
yes
is there a vaccine available for HAV
togaviridae
the genus alphavirus is from what family
mosquitos
there are approximately 26 alphaviruses and they are transmitted to humans by what (arboviruses) and all of the viruses in this group have a common antigen
viremia
following the inoculation of the alphavirus by the mosquito the person develps what and the virus spreads to target organs
receptor-mediated endocytosis
following the attachment of the alphavirus it is engulfed how
alphavirus
clinically in humans what virus produce fever, rashes, encephalitis (Eastern and Western equine encephalitis), infectious arthritis (Chikungunya) and flu-like syndrome (Venezuelan equine encephalitis)
togaviridae
the genus rubivirus is from what family
rubella virus
the only member of the rubivirus is what
respiratory secretions of an infected person
how is the rubivirus transmitted
german measles
what is another name for rubella
rubella
what is a virus that lasts for 2-3 days and produces fever and a maculopapular rash
rubella
what virus is a threat to pregnant women because it can infect the placenta and damage the fetus, esp in 1st trimester. The outcome may be congenital heart disease, cataracts, hepatitis, mental retardation, motor dysfunction or deafness
MMR
what vaccine is given at 12-15 months and 4-6 years of age for the second dose to protect against rubella
flaviridae
what family of viruses is enveloped and have a +ss RNA genome and three structural proteins. The capsid protein and the viral RNA form the icosahedral nucleocapsid. Enveloped at the Golgi membranes.
flavivirus, hepatitis C virus, and pestivirus
what three genera is the family flavivirus divided into
arthropod vectors (mainly the tick and mosquito)
how is the flavivirus spread
falvivirus
what family gets its name from the yellow fever virus where a person becomes jaundiced and turns yellow
E proteins
what are spikes on the flaviviral envelope which allow it to recognize the receptor on the host cell and attach to it
M
in the flavivirus during the budding process the amino acid particle that is on the end of the pre-___ protein is released by a proteolytic cleavage process which produces a mature ___ protein, necessary for an infectious West Nile particle
Yellow fever and Dengue fever
what is flavivirus responsible for in the tropics
encephalitis (St. louis encephalitis, Japanese enecphalitis, and tick-borne encephalitis)
what is caused by flavivirus and has many symptoms such as severe headaches, fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, muscle pain, and diarrhea and can progress to muscular rigidity, photophobia, abnormal tremors and movements, sensory loss, convulsions, and respiratory dysfunction
hemorrhagic fever (yellow fever)
what is caused by flavivirus that causes excessive bleeding and is due to the growth of the virus in the kidney and heart and the jaundice is caused by the virus infecting the liver infecting the liver and the symptoms include fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice
dengue virus
what is caused by the flavivirus that produces the initial symptoms of high fever, headache, and muscular pain. then followed by increased muscular and bone pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, skin rashes, and weakness
southeast asia
in what geographic area does a severe form of Dengue infection occur and it is called dengue shock syndrome or dengue hemorrhagic fever and this may lead to shock, hemorrhaging and death and the mortality in children is 10%
macrophages
due to antibodies to a cross reacting strain of Dengue (maternal or earlier infection) binding to virus and promotes entry into what where it replicates
Yellow fever
what live attenuated vaccine is there to protect against flavivirus
tickborne encephalitis
what formalin inactivated vaccine is there to protect against flavivirus
west nile virus
what is transmitted mainly from bird populations to humans by the mosquito and causes fever, malaise, lymphadenopathy, and rash and this infection may also lead to aseptic meningitis and meningoencephalitis especially in the elderly
New Jersey and other MidAtlantic states
where is west nile virus located geographically
IV drug use, transfusions, hemodialysis, and tattooing
what are the common modes of transmission (4) for HCV
flaviviridae
what family does HCV belong to
HCV
what virus are these uncommon modes of transmission for:
-mother to infant at childbirth
-needlesticks
-sexual intercourse
-by sharing a razor or nail clippers from an infected person
hepatocyte, lymphocytes, and macrophages
where does viral replication for HCV occur
hepatocytes
what is destroyed in HCV as a result of viral replication or from the individual's immune response
HCV
what virus is majority subclinical infections and only 25% of infected patients produce symptoms, but a significant number of patients develop cirrhosis and some develop hepatocellular carcinoma
HCV
what has the following symptoms:
-pain in the RUQ
-nausea and vomiting
-loss of appetite
-jaundice
-fatigue
-itching
antibodies or RT-PCR
how is HCV diagnosed
calciviruses
what are small, non-enveloped, spherical particles-ssRNA
Norwalk
what virus from calciviruses replicates in the GI tract and is shed in the feces
fecal-oral, when contaminated water or food is ingested
what is the mode of transmission of the calciviruses
acute gastroenteritis
the calciviruses is the major cause of what in densely populated environments such as schools, camps, prisons, military bases, and cruise ships
24-48
how many hours do the symptoms of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea of caliviridae last
HEV
what is a non-enveloped ssRNA virus that is linked to areas of the world with poor sanitation
fecal-oral, ingesting contaminated water or food, raw or undercooked shellfish
what are the means of transmission for HEV
3-8
HEV can lead to death in pregnant women because the incubation period after ecposure is how many weeks
HEV
what has the following symptoms:
nausea
vomiting
jaundice
anorexia
tender liver
pale stools
dark urine
coronaviridae
what are large, enveloped, pleomorphic particles that has spikes (peplomers) on the surface like a solar corona, have the largest RNA genomes known
SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome-corona virus)
what is a viral respiratory illness cause by a corona virus
Asia
where was SARS first reported and then over a few months spread to to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Adia before it became a global outbreak in 2003
SARS
what virus begins with a high fever, other symptoms may include headache, an overall feeling of discomfort, and body aches. Some people also have mild respiratory symptoms at the outset. About 10 percent to 20 percent of patients have diarrhea. After 2 to 7 days, patients may develop a dry cough. Most patients develop pneumonia.
person to person contact, respiratory droplets, touching contaminated surface then touching mouth, eyes, nose, or airborne
how is SARS transmitted
China
where were the most recent SARS outbreaks