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Ap world unit 3
the Ap world unit 3 key terms and answers
Terms in this set (37)
How did state formations develop in the post-classical era?
State formation in this era demostrated remarkable continuity, innovation and diversity in various regions. In Afro-Eurasia some states attempted, with differing degrees of success, to preserve or revive imperial structures, with smaller, less-centralized states continued to develop. The expansion of Islam introduced a new concept- the caliphate- to Afro-Eurasian statecraft. Pastoral peoples in Eurasia institutions from both the pastoral and agranan worlds. In the Americas, powerful states developed in both Mesoamerica and the Andean region.
How did post-classical states avoid the mistakes of classical empires in the regions where classical empires collapsed?
Most reconstituted governments following the collapse of empires, including the Byzantine Empire and the Chinese dynasties- Sui, Tang, and Song- combined tradtional sources of power and legitimacy (such as patriarchy, religion, or landowning elites) with innovations better suited to the current circumstances (such as new methods of taxation, tributary systems or adaptation of religious institutions).
What new forms of governance emerged in the post classical era?
In some places, new forms of governance emerged, including those developed in various Islamic states (such as the Abbasids, Muslim Iberia, or the Delhi sultanates), the Mongol Khanates and city states (such as in the Italian peninsula, East Africa or Southeast Asia).
How and where did governmental diffusion occur in the post-classical era?
Some states synthesized local and borrowed traditions (such as Persian traditions influencing Islamic states or Chinese traditions influencing Japan).
How did states in the Americas develop in the post-classical era?
In the Americas, as in Afro-Eurasia, state systems expanded in scope and reach: networks of city states flourished in the Maya region, and, at the end of this period, imperial systems were created by the Mexica ("Aztecs") and Inca.
What technological and cultural exchanges did states encourage in the post-classical era?
Inter-regional contacts and conflicts between states and empires encouraged significant technological and cultural trannfers, for example between Tang China and the Abbasids, across the Mongol empires and during the Crusades.
What were the overall worldwide economic trends in the post-classical era?
Changes in trade networks resulted from and stimulated increasing productive capacity, with important implications for social and gender structures and environmental processes. Productivity rose in both agriculture and industry. Rising productivity supported population growth and urbanization but also straned environmental resources and at times caused dramatic demographic swings. Shifts in production and the increased volume of trade also stimulated new labor practices, including adaptation of existing patterns of free and coerced labor. Social and gender structures evovled in response to these changes.
What new innovations affected agriculture in the post-classical era?
Agricultural production increased significantly due to technological innovations (shuch as Champa rice varieties, the chinampa field systems, waru waru raised field cultivation in the Andean areas, improved terracing techniques or the horse collar).
How and why did crops migrate during the post-classical era?
In response to increasing demand in Afro-Eurasia for foreign luxury goods, crops were transported from their indigenous homelands to equivalent climates in other regions (such as sugar or citrus).
How did textile and porcelain production develop in the post-classical era?
Chinese, Perisan, and Indian artisans and merchants also expanded their production of textiles and porcelains for export; industrial production of iron and steel expanded in China.
Why did some post-classical urban areas decline?
Factors that contributed to declines of urban areas in this period included invasions, disease, the decline of agricultureal productivity, and the Little Ice Age.
Why did some post-classical urban areas prosper and grow?
Factors that contributed to urban revival included the end of invasions, the availability of sage and reliable transport, the rise of commerce and the warmer temperatures between 800 and 1300. Increased agricultural productivity and subsequent rising population and greater availability of labor also contributed to urban growth.
What roles did cities play in their societies during the post-classical era?
While cities in general continued to play the roles they had played in the past as governmental, religious and commercial centers, many older cities declined at the same time that numerous new cities took on these established roles.
How did social and labor systems develop during the post classical era?
Despite significant continuities in social structures and in methods of production, there were also some important changes in labor management and in the the effects of religious conversion on gender relations and family life.
What pre-existing labor systems develop during the post-classical era?
As in the previous period, the main forms of labor organization includedfree peasant agriculture, nomadic pastoralism, craft production and guild organization, along with various forms of coerved and unfree labor and government imposed labor taxes and military obligations.
How did social and gender hierarchies develop in the post-classical era?
As in the previous perid, social structures were shaped largely by class and caste hierarchies. partriarchy persisted; however, in some areas, women exercised more power and influence, most notably among the Mongols and in West Africa, Japan and Southeast Asia.
What new labor froms developed in the post-classical era?
New forms of coerced labor appeared including serfdom in Europe and Japan and the elaboration of the mit'a in the Inca Empire. Free peasants resisted attempts to raise dues and taxes by staging revolts (such as in China or the Byzantine Empire). The demand for slaves for both military and domestic purposes increased particularly in central Eurasia, parts of Africa and the eastern Meditteranean.
Who did gender roles and family structures change in the post-classical era?
The diffusion of Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, and Neo-Confucianism often led to significant changes in gender relations and family structure.
How did trade networks in the post-Classical Era compare to the Classical Era?
Though Afro-Eurasia and the Americas remained seperate from each other, this era witnessed a deepening and widening of old and new networks of human interaction within and across regions.
What new technologies, governmental policies, and merchant activities accompanied these developments?
Innovations in transportation, state polocies and mercantile practices contributed to the expansion and development of commercial networks, which in turn served as conduits for cultural, tecnological, and biological diffusion within and between various societies.
What role did pastoral and nomadic groups play in these trade networks?
Pastoral and nomadic groups played a key rolein creating and sustaining these networks.
How did the physical size of post-Classical trade networks compare to the previous era?
Improved transportation and commercial practices led to an increasevolume of trade, and expanded the geographical range of existing and newly-active trade notworks.
What Classical era trade networks continued during the post-Classical era, and which new cities were added during the post-Classical era?
Existing trade networks flourished including the Silk Roads, the Mediterranean Sea, trans-Saharan and the Indian Ocean basin.
What new technologies enabled the growth of inter-regional trade networks?
The growth of inter-regional trade in luxury goods was encouraged by significant innovations in previously-existing transportationand commercial technologies.
What factors encouraged commercial growth in the post-classial era?
Commercial growth was also facilitated by new state practices, new trading organizations, and new state-sponsored commercial infrastuctures like the Grand Canal in China.
How did trans-Eurasian trade as a whole develop during the post-Classical era?
The expansion of existing empires-including China, the Byzantine Empire, and the Caliphates- as well as new empires-like the Mongols-faciliated trans-Eurasian trade and communication as new peoples were drawn into their conquerors' economies and trade networks.
What were the effects of migration in the pst-classical era?
The movement of peoples caused environmental and linguistic effects.
What basin understandings of enviorment and technology did post-classial traders need to conduct their business?
The expansion and intensification of long-distance trade routes often depended on peoples' understanding f a particular regional enviorment and their subsiquent technological adaptations to them.
How did trade networksas a whole develop inthe post-classical era?
Cross-cultural changes were fortered by the intensification of existing or the creation of new networks of trade and communication.
Why and where did Mumslim trade networks change in the post-Classial era?
Islam expanded from the Arabian Peninsula to many parts of Afro-Eurasia due to military expansion and the activities of merchants and missionaries.
What institutions did merchants create to foster both trade and cultural diffusion in the post-Classical era?
In key places along important trade routes, merchants set up diasporacommunities where they introduced their own cultural traditions into the indigenous culture.
How well did post-classial societies know and understand each other?
The writings of certain inter-regional travelers illustrate both the extent and the limitations of inter-cultural knowledge and understanding.
How did post-classical affect the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions?
Increased cross-cultural interactions resulted in the diffusion of literary, artistic, and cultural traditions.
How did post-classical trade affect the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions?
Increased cross-cultural interactions also resulted in the diffusion of scientific and technological traditions.
What were the biological effects of post-classical trade?
There was continued diffusion of crops and pathogens throughout the Eastern hemisphere along the trade routes.
What new foods,crops, and agricultural practices diffused in the post-classical era?
New foods were adotped in populated areas (such as bananas in Africa, new rice varities in East Asia or the Muslim Agricultural Revolution).
What diseases and pathogens also spread via post-classical trade networks?
The spread of epidemic diseases, including the Black Death, followed the well-established paths of trade and military conquest.
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