Heredity

Heredity
STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

- can be done 3 ways: Cloning, Budding, and Regeneration
- offspring is identical to the parent (zero variety)
- full set of chromosomes to new organism after mitosis
-fast and can produce large numbers of offspring
-does not depend on a second organism to reproduce, only one parent organism is required
Asexual Reproduction
Sexual reproduction is slower than asexual reproduction and it produces fewer offspring. Having "more organisms" helps a species establish a population. Is having fewer offspring an advantage or disadvantage then for organisms that reproduce sexually and are trying to establish a population?
disdvantage
- 1/2 or 50% of each parent contributes to the offspring
- Special cells go through Meiosis to produce gametes (sex cells)
- slow and produces lower numbers of offspring
- depend on a mate, due to two organisms being needed to produce offspring
- produces a blended full set of chromosomes coming from each parent.
Sexual Reproduction
Due to all all organisms being identical to the "parent" cell in asexual reproduction. One type of disease could wipe out the entire species. Is this an advantage or disadvantage of asexual reproduction?
disadvantage
- Special cell division that produces 4 gametes with half sets of chromosomes
- produces egg cells and sperm cells
- important because when the sex cells from this type of division combine the offspring will have a full set of chromosomes.
Meiosis
- Austrian Monk who studied pea plants
- "Father of Genetics"
- found patterns of heredity and traits
- traits come in pairs (one from each parent)
- traits can be strong or weak (dom. & rec.)
- strong factors are always expressed
- weak is only exp. when both are rec.
Gregor Mendel
"Draw a Punnett Square on a sheet of paper and do it to answer the next 9 questions!"
In humans round faces are dominant over long faces.

Cross a hybrid round face person with a long face person.
NO ANSWER HERE - USE THE PUNNETT SQUARE YOU JUST DID AND ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS.
Punnett Square Question #1
The trait you are studying in your Punnett Square is ______________.
Face Shape
Punnett Square Question #2
The alleles for this trait are ____________ and ____________.
Round and Long
Punnett Square Question #3
The genotypes for the parents are __________ and ___________.
Rr and rr
Punnett Square Question #4
What are the possible phenotypes for the offspring?
Round and Long
Punnett Square Question #5
What are the possible genotypes of the offspring?
Hybrid (Rr) and pure-bred recessive (rr)
Punnett Square Question #6
An offspring that is Rr will have what type of face?
It is a hybrid (Rr), so it will have a Round face (one dominant trait that overpowers the recessive trait)
Punnett Square Question #7
What percentage will have a long face phenotype?
50%
Punnett Square Question #8
What percent will be pure-bred dominant Round faced?
0%
Punnett Square Question #9 (LAST ONE USING PUNNETT)
What percent will be have a hybrid genotype?
50%
Human Body cells have how many total chromosomes?
46
How many chromosomes are in a human gamete (sex cell)?
23
Females 23rd pair of chromosomes
XX
Males 23rd set of chromosomes
XY
True or False:
The higher the number of chromosomes in a nucleus the complex the organism.
False!
The number of chromosomes is only specific to what type of organism it IS!

It DOES NOT tell us anything about how complex the organism is. For example dogs have 78 chromosomes and humans have 46, yet humans are more "complex" then dogs.
- are found in the nucleus
- occur in pairs
- carry instructions for the cell
- carry DNA and the code for the organism.
Chromosomes
A ______________ is a segment of a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.
Gene
- sections of chromosomes
- occur in pairs
- have alleles (one from mom and one from dad)
Genes
- is a set of instructions telling the cell how to assemble proteins to make the code of genetics.
- looks like a twisted ladder
- made up of sugars, phosphates, and nitrogen bases
- make up chromosomes and are found in the nucleus
- found in BOTH plants and animal cells
DNA
What two scientist were given credit for the discovery of how DNA is shaped (the double helix structure)?
Watson and Crick
- Looks like a twisted ladder
- order of nitrogen bases determine how the protein is assembled which tells us what it will "look like"
- Adenine bonds with thymine and cytosine bonds with guanine
- Sugar and Phosphates alternate up the side of the ladder and the bases (A, T, C and G) make up the steps (rungs) of the ladder.
DNA Structure
When a DNA strand unzips and makes an identical copy of itself (2 new identical DNA molecules) it is called __________________________________________.
DNA Replication
- occur when there is a change in the DNA
- can be helpful
- can be harmful
- most go unnoticed
Mutations
The directions for building proteins is found in the DNA within the ___________ of the cell, but the proteins are then assembled by the protein manufactures of the cell, the ______________.
Nucleus and Ribosomes
This is the written expression of a trait ____________.
Genotype
This is the "visible" physical aspect of a trait __________. (What you see.)
Phenotype
When would an organism show a recessive trait?
When it receives a recessive gene for that trait from both parents (or lower case letter and lower case letter - genotype)
What is a pure bred dominate trait?
When an organism has two dominate genes for one type of trait.
What is a hybrid?
When an organism has one dominate gene and one recessive gene for a trait.
What gene is "seen" in a hybrid - why?
Dominate, because it over powers the weak trait.
Most mutations are what?
Neutral and will not hurt nor help an organism.
What is selective breeding?
Breeding two organisms of the same type with desirable traits.
What is genetic engineering?
Taking the DNA from one type of organism and putting it into a totally different type of organism.
Enzymes are special types of ____________________________.
Proteins
When an enzyme looses its shape due to high temp (or some other factor) and it cannot perform its function with the substrate it is called a __________________________ enzyme.
denatured
Meat tenderizer is an enzyme that breaks down meat. If you put it on meat and then place the meat in the refrigerator the meat will break down ______________________.
slowly