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Abdomen II Test 1: Review & Liver Pathology
Terms in this set (97)
Fatty infiltration is often patchy or focal. A less affected region of the liver is called...
Increased size of the caudate lobe
In sonographic evaluation of patients with cirrhosis of the liver, all of the following should be considered except...
What is the smallest lobe of the liver?
Which of the following does not unite to form the portal vein?
which of the following is not a retroperitoneal structure?
Target like structure anterior to the aorta and posterior to the left lobe of the liver represents the normal...
it is larger and longer than the left
Which of the following statements is true about the right crus of the diaphragm is true?
A. it is larger and longer than the left
B. attatches to the psoas muscle to th diaphragm
C. the frequent site of the metastasis in lympoma
D. it is shorter than the left
tracing to their points of origin
one way to distinguish hepatic veins form portal veins is by..
thicker walls and echogenic rim surrounding them
The portal veins can be distinguished from hepatic veins by their...
main lobar fissure
A linear echodensity that connects te gallbladder to the main portal vein is the...
common hepatic duct
In the liver, the right and left hepatic ducts will join to form the ...
hepatic artery and portal vein
The liver is supplied with blood via the...
the normal echogenic pattern of the liver is..
anterior and posterior
the segments of the right lobe of the liver are..
loculations within ascites are most commonly the result of...
tonguelike extension of the right lobe of the liver
Ascites is defined as accumulation of fluid in the..
An echogenic linear echo located immediately anterior to the caudate lobe represents the ...
medial and lateral
The segments of the left lobe of the liver are..
The liver is Suspended from the diaphragm by the_______
Main Lobar Fissure
_______ ligament Boundary between the right
and left lobes. Seen on ultrasound as a hyperechoic line extending from the portal vein to the neck of the gallbladder.
______ Ligament Extends from the umbilicus
to the diaphragm and contains the ligamentum
_____ Ligament Separates the left lobe
from the caudate lobe
Right hypochondrium, Epigastrium, Left hypochondrium
Liver is located in the...
Portal vein, Hepatic veins and arteries
Liver Vascular supply...
_____ drain blood from the liver
____ brings blood to the liver
________ carry blood from the bowel to the liver,
liver expels waste products from
the body via its excretory product , bile
(which also plays a role in fat absorption) as part of
the liver ________ many drugs
and poisons that enter the body.
physical and chemical
process in which nutrients are synthesized into complex elements, complex elements are transformed into simple ones, and energy is made available for use by the bod
The process that affects the
hepatocytes and interferes with liver
appears as bright echogenic foci on transverse image; along with falciform ligament, it divides medial and lateral segments of the left lobe of the liver
Disease process is chronic and progressive
resulting in liver cell failure and portal hypertension as the end stage.
______ disease causes
Displacement of the hepatic vascular
External bulging of the liver capsule
Posterior shift of the IVC
_____ disease causes
Internal invagination or discontinuity
of the liver capsule
Formation of a triangular fat wedge Antero-medial shift of IVC
Anterior displacement of right kidney
The ________ is a parenchymal liver cell that performs all the functions ascribed to the liver
Sonographic findings of......
Enlargement of affected lobe
Visualization of portal vein structures
may be difficult. (increased attenuation)
More difficult to see outline of portal and
hepatic vein borders
A General name for inflammatory and
infectious disease of the liver
______ active hepatitis
progresses to cirrhosis and liver failure.
hepatocelluar or obstructive
Liver diseases classified as ________or
_________ is when the bile from the liver is
blocked and the liver malfunctions as a result of the obstruction.
__________ is when the liver cells or
hepatocytes are causing the problem. Virus attacks and damages or destroys the cells causing alteration of liver function
Hepatocellular disease is treated
while Obstructive disease is treated
Hepatocelluar disease, fatty infiltration, hepatitis and cirrhosis are known as _____ disease
Hepatocytes replaced by ____ cells or _____
_____ _____: like hypoechoic area (most commonly anterior to gallbladder or the portal vein and posterior portion of the left lobe of the liver)
A, B, C
Most common form of hepatitis...
A "starry sky (or night)
appearance" refers to...
When_________ is present, the gallbladder wall is thickened
In ___ hepatitis, Liver may be enlarged, Normal to slightly more echogenic portal vein borders are more prominent.
Liver does not increase in size with _____hepatitis.
Hepatosplenomegaly may be present, with cirrhosis and ______ surrounding the liver.
Chronic _____ may show nodularity of liver edge
As cirrhosis advances, hepatic veins will have ____ velocities and turbulence.
Distal ____ _____ is caused by stones, extrahepatic mass in the porta hepatis or stricture of the common duct
Rare disease of iron metabolism characterized by excess iron deposits throughout the body.
Von Gierke's Disease
Most common is type 1- _____ ______
disease, abnormally large amounts of glycogen are deposited in the liver and kidneys.
Proximal ____ _____ is caused by gallstone, carcinoma of the CBD or metastatic tumor invasion of th porta hepatis.
Abscesses caused by complication of biliary
tract disease, surgery or trauma.
"Pus-forming" abscess from Bacteria gaining access to the liver via the biliary tree, portal vein, or hepatic artery.
Immunocommpromised hosts such as chemotherapy patients organ transplant recipients or people with HIV. It Invades the blood stream and can affect any organ. Kidneys, brain and heart are affected the most
Collection of pus formed by disintegrated tissue in a cavity caused by a protozoan parasite. (Primarily a disease of the colon) Parasites reach the liver via the portal vein.
Chronic granulomatous disease
Recessive trait related to a congenital defect in the leukocyte that is able to ingest but not kill certain bacteria and fungi
•Occurs mostly in children more frequently in boys because it is a recessive trait
____ hepatic tumors are Uncontrolled and is prone to metastasize via the bloodstream and lymph nodes.
______ hepatic tumors occurs locally and does not
spread or invade surrounding structures.
Most common benign tumor of the liver
Focal fatty infiltration
Which of these is a reversible disease process?
C. focal fatty infiltration
D. primary sclerosing cholangitis
It is incompatible with life
What is true about complete agensis of the liver?
Liver failure, cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma
What can chronic hepatitis lead to?
A malignant liver mass in a 2 year old is most likely which type of disease?
What is the typical treatment for a patient with primary sclerosing cholangitis?
It protrudes through the umbilicus
What happens to the liver when there is an omphalocele?
at the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts
Where is a Klatskin's tumor located?
A 24 year old female, who is taking oral contraceptives, presents with RUQ pain and a palpable mass in her liver
Which non-cystic liver masses can be nearly anechoic?
A 17 year old presents with RUQ pain following a car accident. What is most likely the cause?
What is the typical sonographic appearance of focal nodular hyperplasia compared to the liver?
What is the upper limit of normal for the length of the liver?
Polycystic liver disease
Anechoic structures found within the liver may indicate what?
A 61 year old male presents with hepatitis C and a mass in his liver. What pathology is most likely present?
The _____ is anterior to the caudate lobe and posterior to the left lobe of the liver.
Fatty infiltration may be observed in all patients except those with:
A. diabetes mallitus
B. hepatopetal fistula
C. Chronic alcoholism
Patients who have hepatocellular carcinoma are likely to have had
During an ultrasound evaluation of the liver, a bullseye/target lesion is identified in the anterior right lobe. What is this?
B. Acute Hepatitis
C. Fatty Infiltration
D. Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Focal nodular hyperplasia
what benign liver tumor is located near the free edge of the liver, solitary, well circumscribed and nonencapsulated multinodular mass?
B. Cavernous Hemangioma
C. Focal Nodular Hyperplasia
shrunken caudate lobe
You are scanning a patient with suspected liver cirrhosis. All are sonographic findings except
A. surface nodularity
B. shrunken caudate lobe
C. Altered echo structure
E. hepatocellular carcinoma
Enlargement of the caudate lobe is commonly associated with
C. Metastatic Disease
D. Hapatocelluar Carcinoma
All of the above
Metastatic lesions in the liver may appear sonographically as
A. Target/bull's eye
E. All of the above
Cystic lesions of the liver could include all except
A. congentical cysts
B. Polycystic liver disease
D. Cavernous hemangioma
Elevation of alkaline phosphatase is associated with:
Accentuated brightness, more extensive demonstration of portal vein radicles, and overall decreased echogenicity of the liver
Sonographic findings of acute hepatitis include:
the most common benign liver tumor
The most common form of neoplastic involvement of the liver is ______
anterior displacement of the right kidney
All of the following statements are true about the features most often observed in an intrahepatic mass except
focal nodular hyperplasia
What benign tumor is located near the free edge of the liver, solitary, well circumscribed, and nonencapsulated multinodular mass?
The liver is enlarged when it exceeds
A. 13 cm
B. 15 cm
C. 18 cm
D. 22 cm
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