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biology honors quiz 19 '2
Terms in this set (13)
What is the structure of the plasma membrane, and what are its functions?
The primary function of the plasma membrane is to protect the cell from its surroundings. Composed of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins, the plasma membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and regulates the movement of substances in and out of cells
What about the structure of the plasma membrane allows for its "bilayer" arrangement?
The surfaces of cell membranes are hydrophilic ; the interiors are hydrophobic.
What is the structure of the nucleus, and what are its functions?
The main function of the cell nucleus is to control gene expression and mediate the replication of DNA during the cell cycle. The nucleus is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Inside its fully enclosed nuclear membrane, it contains the majority of the cell's genetic material.
structures: nucleolus(center),chromatin(middle),nuclear envelope(last),nuclear pores (small holes on nucleus) chromosomes(the x shaped structure inside the chromatin(the mid part of the nucleus)
What are the subcomponents of the nucleus, and what are their functions?
nucleolus:GThe nucleolus makes ribosomal subunits from proteins and ribosomal RNA, also known as rRNA. It then sends the subunits out to the rest of the cell where they combine into complete ribosomes. Ribosomes make proteins; therefore, the nucleolus plays a vital role in making proteins in the cell.
chromatin:The function of chromatin is to efficiently package DNA into a small volume to fit into the nucleus of a cell and protect the DNA structure and sequence. Packaging DNA into chromatin allows for mitosis and meiosis, prevents chromosome breakage and controls gene expression and DNA replication.
nuclear envelope:The nuclear envelope surrounds the nucleus with a double membrane with multiple pores. The pores regulate the passage of macromolecules like proteins and RNA, but permit free passage of water, ions, ATP and other small molecules.
nuclear pores:Nuclear pore complexes allow the transport of molecules across the nuclear envelope. This transport includes RNA and ribosomal proteins moving from nucleus to the cytoplasm and proteins (such as DNA polymerase and lamins), carbohydrates, signaling molecules and lipids moving into the nucleus.
chromosomes:Chromosomes are thread-like structures located inside the nucleus of animal and plant cells. Each chromosome is made of protein and a single molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Passed from parents to offspring, DNA contains the specific instructions that make each type of living creature unique.
If a cell has a large number of ribosomes, what could you hypothesize about its functions?
it's secific function would be to specialize in produceing proteins
What is the difference between cytoplasmic proteins, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins? What organelles are associated with each type of protein?
Proteins in the extracellular matrix, can act as bridges between integrins and other extracellular matrix proteins such as collagen. On the inner side of the membrane, the integrins are linked to the cytoskeleton,the extracellular matrix also contains many other types of proteins and carbohydrates.
the nucleus is involved with the cytoplasmic protein,Cytoplasmic protein receptors in the lymphocyte cell, the so-called .... suggesting that it may act as a shuttle/signaling protein or as a transcription factor
What is the structure of lysosomes, and what are their functions?
Lysosomes are cellular organelles involved in digestion and waste removal. Lysosomes are surrounded by a membrane composed of phospholipids and contain digestive enzymes. The waste they remove can be in the form of invading bacteria, broken cell parts, or an entire unneeded cell
What is phagocytosis, and how exactly does it occur?
Phagocytosis, process by which certain living cells called phagocytes ingest or engulf other cells or particles. The phagocyte ( cell receptors tell,phagocyte sensors trigger the process) may be a free-living one-celled organism, such as an amoeba, or one of the body cells, such as a white blood cell.
What is the structure of the Smooth ER, and what are its functions?
Definition of the Smooth ER. The smooth endoplasmic reticulum, or smooth ER, is an organelle found in both animal cells and plant cells. An organelle is a sub-unit within a cell that has a specialized function. The main function of the smooth ER is to make cellular products like hormones and lipids.
What structures are part of the "Endomembrane System"?
What are the functions of the different types of vacuoles?
food vacuoles :The vacuole in cells have three main functions which are to provide the plant with support or rigidity, a storage area for nutrients and waste matter and can decompose complex molecules In plant cells, the vacuole also can store water.
contractile vacuoles A contractile vacuole works just the same as the name suggests, in that it expands and contracts. The point of the contractile vacuole is to pump water out of the cell through a process called osmoregulation, the regulation of osmotic pressure.
sap vacuoles When the vacuole is filled with liquid, it exerts pressure against the cell wall, making the plant more rigid and sturdy. Additionally, cell sap helps plant cells in the process of osmosis, which is the process of transferring a liquid solvent through a membrane
air vacuoles Some of the other functions include: Cell growth - Vacuoles are important in plant cells given that they help maintain turgidity of the cell.
What is the structure of the golgi apparatus, and what are its functions?
membrane-bound sacs called the Golgi apparatus (or Golgi body, Golgi complex, dictyosome). It acts to process and package the macromolecules such as proteins and lipids that are synthesized by the cell.
Given the following diagram, describe the six steps of Protein Synthesis, ensuring to incorporate all applicable structures and processes in your responses.
1)instructions from DNA sure copied onto MRNA in the nucleus
2)MRNA moves to ribosome
3)ribosome moves to endoplasmic reticulum and "reads" MRNA instructions
4)amino acid chain growing from ribosome is dropped inside endoplasmic reticulum membrane. chains folds into protein
5)protein moves to golgi complex for additional sorting and processing
6)protein moves to plasma membrane for export
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