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Sociology & You - Ch. 3 Study Guide
Terms in this set (18)
1. Ex of material culture
2. Ex of nonmaterial culture
3. _______ and ________ cannot exist without the other.
4. __________ ___________ is based on culture.
5. Culture defines a __________ way of life.
1. skyscrapers, computers, cell phones, cars
2. beliefs, rules, customs, family systems, capitalist economy
3. culture, society
4. human behavior
what are the two roles of culture?
1. to help explain human behavior (like/dislikes, values, beliefs/nonbeliefs)
2. to provide the blueprint that ppl in a society use to guide their relationships w/ others (ex. culture is the reason by teenagers belief lifting leads to masculinity)
- most social scientists view the role of instincts in human behavior as limit
- humans are not controlled by instinct allows because all humans do not act the same
- ex. not all women like to have kids (abuse/abandon)
- humans are forced to create and learn their own ways of thinking
list the theoretical perspectives and the culture concepts that go with each
1. functionalism - values (macro) / influences how needs are met
2. conflict theory - dominant ideology (macro) / painting privileges and positions of power
3. symbolic interactionism - social interactions (micro) / culture transmitted through social interaction
- genetic inheritance influences culture (general intelligent and personality traits)
- heredity sets a broad parameter for the development of some behaviors and traits (ex. genetic factors linking kindness & depression)
- nature vs. nurture: interplay between genetics & environmental factors work to influence culture
- culture channels the expression of biological characteristics
- combines theory of natural seleciton w/ modern genetics
- apply the theory of natural selection to social behavior (believe best behaviors are biologically based)
- sociobiologist do not draw a sharp line between human + nonhuman (language is not. unique to humans)
- criticized bc: used to justify race inferiority, cannot be explained w/ biology alone bc too much variaton
1. the _______ and _________ of culture depends heavily on symbols.
2. ex of symbols & differing meaning (2)
3. _______ frees humans from the limits of time and place.
1. creation, transmission
2. clapping in usa vs latin am. + confederate flag
hypothesis of linguistic relativity (Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis)
- created by Edward Sapir + Benjamin Whorf
- language is our guide to reality
- when something is important to a society, its language will have many words to describe it
- ex. time in usa
- no word for sin in Chinese
- no word for a single god in African + Polynesian languages
- no words to express #s > 2 in piranha of brazil
1. Exposure to another language or words _______. This is why it's important to a void ________.
2. What do norms help explain?
3. ________ is an important source for laws.
4. Norms must by ______ and _______
1. can alter our perception, stereotypical labels
2. norms help explain why ppl in a society or group behave similarly in similar circumstances.
4. learned, accepted
Willam Graham Sumner
- sociologist that stated anything can be considered appropriate when norms approve of it
- once norms are learned, members of society use them to guide their social behavior
- identified 3 types of norms: folkway, mores, laws
list the three factors that cause change in social norms and culture over time
1. invention - the creation of new cultural elements (objects + ideas)
2. discovery - or a better understanding of something already known
3. diffusion - the spread of cultural elements form one culture to another
- more general in comparison to norms and sanctions act are specific
- do not dictate precise ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving
- different societies/group within the same society can have different norms based on the same values
- so general that they are involved in most aspects of daily life
List 6 basic U.S. values
1. achievement and success
2. activity and work
3. efficiency and practicality
6. group superiority
1. Why are beliefs important?
2. What do beliefs provide?
1. people base their behavior on what they believe, regardless of whether their beliefs are true or false or how accurate they are
2. a sense of community through traditions, roles, and cultural expectations
1. the physical objects of material culture have ______.
2. what determines the cultural meanings of physical objects?
3. what do material culture objects carry?
1. no innate meaning or uses. their meanings are assigned by the culture that created them
2. then beliefs, values, and norms ppl hold w/ regard to them
3. carry meanings not related to their actual uses
3 reasons for why culture changes
1. discovery - the process of finding something that already exists
2. invention - the creation of something new
3. diffusion. - the borrowing of aspects of cultures from other cultures
- exists in all societies
- some diversity results form social categories (ex. age, gender)
- immigration, globalism, faster communication, increased cultural relevance promote cultural diversity
- folk culture vs pop culture
- sub + counter cultures
- at the heart of culture shock
- almost alway in conflict w/ globalism bc as the world becomes more interconnected cultural diffusion brings in new ideas
- advantage: helps to maintain tradition and values that are central to society (ppl uphold traditions + values)
- disadvantage: extreme ethnocentrism can divide ppl and lead to hatred and violence
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