CTEL Test 1: Chapt. 2> First- & Second- Language Development & Their Relationship to Academic Achievement
Terms in this set (71)
Language is a biologically-controlled behavior that develops from within, triggered by age & environment.
Direct teaching & intensive practice have LITTLE EFFECT on this "unfolding".
Two critical stages of language development:
1. Birth-2 yrs> a critical period of language emergence when crucial brain structures must develop.
2. Ages 10-16 yrs > learns lang. easily, but not with native-speaker competence.
Stages of First-Language Development
1. After first few wks of crying, infants make vowel-like sounds (oooh, ahhh).
2. 3-4 months> infants start adding consonant sounds
3. 4-6 months> begin to babble using consonant & vowel sounds together
4. End of 1st year> develop a sense of the role in communication
1st year > When children first speak, they utter single words for a sentence (holophrastic utterance). Their first words identify people or things, or express needs.
2nd year > Produce 2-word phrases, then 3-4 word phrases & generate simple sentences that contain nouns & verbs (just the essential words), but omit function words (articles, prepositions, pronouns)
Preschool years > language development grows rapidly, esp. vocabulary growth & conversational skills (learns to take turns, elaborate sentences & admust messages to their listeners' level of understanding.
School years > lang. development continues to evolve & includes learning about academic vocab., language structures & pragmatics.
uttering a single word for a sentence: "Ball" for "Throw me the ball.", "Where is the ball?"
Simple sentences generated @ age 2 that contain nouns & verbs (just the essential words), but omit function words (articles, prepositions, pronouns)
Bilingual Syntax Measure (BSM)
Measures ORAL proficiencies in English and/or Spanish grammatical structures.
A parent or school staff fluent in the std's first language may also take notes on std's language behavior.
Multi-competent language users
Bilingual or trilingual people
The three types of Bilingualism
1. Limited Bilingualism (or subtractive bilingualism) can occur when a child's 1st language is gradually replaced by a more dominant & prestigious language. They may develop low levels of academic proficiency in BOTH languages.
2. Partial Bilingualism > stds achieve a native-like level in ONE of their langs. Has neither positive or negative cognitive effects.
3. Proficient or Additive Bilingualism > when stds are highly proficient in BOTH languages.
Limited Bilingualism (or subtractive bilingualism)
Occurs when a child's 1st language is gradually replaced by a more dominant & prestigious language. They may develop low levels of academic proficiency in BOTH languages.
Stds achieve a native-like level in ONE of their langs. Has neither positive or negative cognitive effects
Proficient or Additive Bilingualism
When stds are highly proficient in BOTH languages.
Cognitive Benefits of Bilingualism
-After 3-4 years of 2nd lang. instruction, these stds outperform their monolingual peers in:
-improved performance on standardized tests, including math
-better pattern recognition, problem solving, divergent thinking & creativity
-better metalingustic thinking & critical thinking
-increased understanding of contextual use of language
-sharper task focus
A person has the vocabulary to talk about grammar because they learned the grammar of their native language.
Some stds have more metalinguistic knowledge than others.
Teachers should assess stud's prior knowledge to learn where to begin instructions.
Simultaneous dual-language acquisition
Some parents/teachers are concerned about children's ability to become proficient simultaneously in two languages, but research shows:
-Before the age of 3, children have acquired the basic elements of grammar--how words go together to make meaning.
-Bilingual children may mix the grammar & vocabulary of 2 langs., but this is temporary.
-They rarely use phonemes of one lang. in the other UNLESS their pronunciation model has an accent.
-By ages 5-6, bilingual speakers show great progress in both languages: They can use & repeat complex sentences, they have mastered 90% of the sound systems, they can apply prepositions correctly, use slang & make jokes, modify their speech depending on audience, and take turns in conversations without being seen as rude.
CA English Language Development Test
Assess K-12 ELs for levels of English proficiency & ANNUALLY assess progress toward becoming fluently English proficient.
Because CELDT is aligned w/CA's ELD & Lang. Arts standards, teachers can use ELs' CELDT levels to match specific lang. objectives in lesson planning with the linguistic needs of the student.
The 4 skill areas covered by CELDT
The 5 proficiency levels of CELDT
CELDT: K-1 students
are only tested in listening & speaking skill areas
(2nd-12th grade are tested in all 4 areas)
Commonalities in First & Second Language Acquisition
1. Lang. acquisition is furthered when learner is IMMERSED IN a stimulating environment.
2. Lang. knowledge BUILDS on PRIOR KNOWLEDGE of concepts.
3. Is vocabulary intensive.
4. The brain seeks patterns with high motivation to understand communication.
5. Verbal language is accompanied by nonverbal communication.
6. All language learning is time-consuming. It cannot be rushed.
7. A second language is built on the foundation of the first language. This is the only way a learner can make sense of the world.
8. Development is cultural as well as linguistic.
*Therefore, supporting the learner's meaning-making acquisition of English is furthered.
**Providing cultural & linguistic support for learners is the major theme of this book.
Separate Underlying Proficiency (SUP) in 2nd language acquisition
Assumes that proficiency in Eng. is separate from proficiency in the primary language.
Critics of bilingual ed. claim that educating children in their primary language reduces their opportunity to acquire English. This argument assumes that content & skills learned thru the primary language do not xfer to English. But Cummins asserts that once cognition & lang is developed in the primary lang., it forms a basis for subsequent learning in ANY language.
Common Underlying Proficiency (CUP) in 2nd language acquisition
Cummins asserts that once cognition & lang is developed in the primary lang., it forms a basis for subsequent learning in ANY language.
This assumes that the 2nd & primary langs. have a SHARED FOUNDATION & that competence in the primary lang. provides the basis for competence in the 2nd lang. (Ex: Korean children learn about concepts of print & the role of literacy that make Eng. acquisition easier despite the fact that these 2 langs. do not share a similar writing system).
Cummins asserts: Stds do NOT have to relearn in a 2nd lang. the essntials of schooling--how to communicate, think critically, and how to read & write.
The 4 former theories of 2nd language acquisition that still influence current practice
-Grammar Translation >translating 2nd lang structures into the 1st language, drilling on grammar knowledge & reading.
-Structural Linguistics >2nd lang structure is compared with primary lang structure to note similarities & differences (ineffective method)
-Contrastive Analysis > theory that comparing the 1st & 2nd langs can predict what's easy & difficult for the learner. (ineffective except in the small area of cognates).
-Behaviorism Theory (includes 3 aspects still used today: audiolingual method, direct teacher & mastery learning method, TPR: Total Physical Response).
Grammar Translation Theory of 2nd language acquisition
Translating 2nd lang structures into the 1st language, drilling on grammar knowledge & reading. Still widely used today.
-Stds learn in carefully-controlled curriculum & are rewarded for memorization.
-Stds have little choice in what they learn.
-They have little/no contact w/speakers of the 2nd lang & almost no use of lang. in social situations.
-There is little stimulation of curiosity & exploration--aspects that are intrinsic to the nature of the mind.
**INSTEAD: 2nd lang teaching (esp. in elementary school) should feature extensive social interaction & active language use.
Contrastive Analysis Theory of 2nd language acquisition
The theory that comparing the 1st & 2nd languages can predict what's easy & difficult for learners.
This theory was impossible to prove.
Contrastive linguistics has proven it is an INEFFECTUAL way to teach a 2nd language EXCEPT in small areas such as cognates.
Behaviorism Theory of 2nd language acquisition
-Repetition & reward led to teachings of drill & practice.
-3 aspects of behaviorism are still used today:
Direct Teaching & Mastery Learning
TPR: Total Physical Response
Audiolingual method of language teaching
One of the 3 aspects of behaviorism theory of language learning still used today.
-Emphasizes the oral practice, such as pattern drills, of specific grammatical forms.
-Goal is to learn new habits of speech in the 2nd language through repetitious training directed by the teacher.
-Errors are corrected immediately to discourage "bad habits".
-Reading & writing are held off until std has an adequate oral base.
Limited exposure to the target culture
Failure to emphasize self-motivated lang acquis.
Repetitious drills to achieve correct pronunciation
Direct Teaching & Mastery Learning methods of language teaching
Widely used in EL classrooms thru reading programs such as Open Court & Direct Instruction.
-Direct Teaching uses EXPLICIT instructional objectives & promotes the learning of facts, sequenced steps & rules. Teachers use carefully scripted lessons divided into small units w/specific objectives that move @ a lockstep pace. Stds are tested regularly & receive immediate remediation if performance lags.
Stds are seldom asked to set their own goals in learning or pursue their own interests.
They have little time to explore language creatively.
The focus on subskills of lang. including word-recognition & low-level comprehension skills
Total Physical Response (TPR)
Stds respond to an oral or written command that is simultaneously modeled ("Stand", "Sit"). Stds continue to respond in this non-verbal manner until they feel comfortable issuing their own commands.
-It is concrete & hands-on
-Recommended by Krashen & Aston for promoting comprehension in a low-anxiety environment.
Current theories of language development
1. Transformational Grammar (Chomsky)
2. Communicative Competence (Hymes)
3. Sociocultural Models
4. Interactionist Model
5. Constructivist Model
6. Social Constructionist Model
7. Interlanguage Theory
8. Krashen's Monitor Model
9. Cummins's Theories of Bilingualism & Cognition
10. Meaning-Centered Approaches
12. Brain-based learning contributions
Language Acquisition Device: the mind's active language processor
Coined by Chomsky in mid-50s who asserted that lang. is not learned solely thru memorization & repeating, but that the mind has an active lang. processor, the LAD, that generates rules through UNCONSCIOUS acquisition of grammar.
This led to a cognitive emphasis on lang learning that focuses on the role of the MIND.
(Hymes) The knowledge that enables lang. users to convey & interpret messages & to negotiate meanings interpersonally with specific contexts.
Not merely knowing grammatical forms but also when, where & how to use lang. appropriately, including in different social contexts.
States that the social setting of language is important in language performance.
This directed attention away from the structural analysis of language toward a more anthropological or cultural approach.
**Communicative lang. teaching involves the social functions of lang. such as agreeing, requesting, telling a story, expressing disappointment, etc.
Even @ the Beginning Level of English, stds learn to meet their needs through communication.
Current conceptions of language
have moved away from merely linguistic components of a language, to include the realm of LANGUAGE IN USE, which includes its psychological, social & political domains.
Current theory that asserts that language is a set of rules that humans unconsciously know & use. (Chomsky)
Once xposed to the langs of their environment, humans use their innate ability to understand & produce sentences they have never heard, because the mind can internalize & construct lang. rules.
Chomsky upheld the idea that children do not need to be taught language.
The goal of transformational grammar is to understand & describe these internalized rules.
*Much of Krashen's Monitor Model can be traced to Chomsky's influence.
Communicative lang. teaching involves
the social functions of lang. such as agreeing, requesting, telling a story, expressing disappointment, etc.
Even @ the Beginning Level of English, stds learn to meet their needs through communication.
Task-Based Learning (TBL)
is part of communicative lang. teaching.
Stds use real-life lang. as they perform actvities that accomplish the language objectives of a lesson.
Task Chain: Activities are in a sequence & tasks involve comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target lang. (ex: Personal letter tasks: reading letters, discussing various parts, producing a letter, maybe to thank a classroom visitor)
Part of TBL: Activities are in a sequence & tasks involve comprehending, manipulating, producing or interacting in the target lang. (ex: Personal letter tasks: reading letters, discussing various parts, producing a letter, maybe to thank a classroom visitor)
Communicative language teaching has also led to
greater use of games & communicative activities that lighten the spirit of learning, reduce anxiety & add excitement to a lesson
**Role play a job interview > ties into grammatical, socio-linguistic, strategic & discourse competence. Stds ID need for politeness, no slang, strategic wording.
Five categories of Communication Strategies students use when they can't produce the precise lang. or linguistic form
1. Avoidance-evading sounds, structures or topics that are beyond current proficiency.
2. Prefabricated patterns-memorizing stock phrases to rely on when all else fails.
3. Cognitive & personality styles to compensate for unknown language.
4. Appeals for help
5. Language switching (or code switching)-falling back on primary lang. for help in communication
Students use communication strategies for
transmitting an idea when they cannot produce the precise lang. or linguistic form.
alternating use of 2 langs. on the word, phrase, or sentence level.
Used by many bilingual speakers for a variety of purposes, not just to help when expressions in the 2nd lang. are lacking.
Code-switching is used by many bilingual speakers to
-emphasize a point
-when word is unknown in one of the languages
-for easy & fluency of expression
-as a repetition to clarify
-to express group identity & status, or to be accepted by a group
-to quote someone
-to interject in a conversation
-to exclude someone
-to cross social/ethnic boundaries
-to ease tension in a conversation
Code-switching plays a key role in
bilingual communicative competence
A teacher who learns & uses words & expressions in students' primary language
can express solidarity w/stds & share personal feelings when appropriate
Letting children use code-switching
is allowing them to learn in whatever manner they're most comfortable so that anxiety about lang. won't interfere with concept acquisition.
Sociocultural Models of 2nd Lang. Acquisition
Schools as institutions of learning & socialization are the larger culture.
Culture influences instruction policy & learning in schools.
**Knowledge of the DEEPER meanings of culture (beyond food, clothing & holidays) gives teachers a crosscultural perspective, allowing them to educate @ the greatest extent possible.
**Teachers MUST know & respect what their community offers stds & should encourage a 2-way path as it circulates from school to home & back to school.
Interactionist Model of 2nd Lang. Acquisition
Extends on communicative competence; utilizes peer conversations to enrich stds' exposure to lang. & to maximize opportunities for ELs to hear & enjoy English.
*F2F interaction is KEY to 2nd lang. acquisition. Through conversation, non-native speakers acquire commonly-occurring formulas & grammar. Through speaking, they enrich the quantity & quality of the lang. they receive. The more learners talk, the more others w/talk to them. It gives them more opportunity to initiate & expand topics & try out new formulas & expressions.
**Teachers need to provide MANY opportunities for ELs to discourse w/native speakers of Eng. in a variety of situations.
**Interview others on "My Favorite ____."
Constructivist Views of Learning
Complex, challenging learning environments help stds take responsibility for constructing their own knowledge.
As stds deal w/complex situation, the teacher provides support, thus, teachers & stds share the knowledge construction process, collaborating on goals of instruction & planning needed for learning
Key elements of constructivist learning include
-encouragement of std autonomy & initiative
-std responses will drive lesson content & instructional strategies
-learning experiences that provoke discussion
-a focus on stds' concept understanding, rather than teacher's concept explanation
-emphasis on critical thiking & std dialogue
-minimal use of rote memorization; instead focus on problem solving
-stds discuss, ask questions, give explanations to each other, present ideas, & solve problems together.
Constructivist learning in elementary years
helps maintain curiosity & zest for learning. Museums are typical constructivist environments where stds can be exposed to rich & different stimuli
Students in constructivist learning environments in middle school & HS levels
use research resources of various types of info. Project-based learning is an effective constructivist technique.
Project-based learning is an effective technique in _______learning.
Social Constructionist Views of Language Learning
Interaction within the community @ school or community @ large.
Interaction shapes the availability & quality of the tools & signs to promote higher mental functions.
All teaching & learning takes place w/in the context of memories, experiences & cultural habits found w/in families.
**Teaching must consider the stds' "zone of proximal development": the distance between the ACTUAL development level of independent problem solving and the level of POTENTIAL development under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.
**Mediation of learning requires teachers to adapt to the level of the std., provide guidance when needed, & help stds work together with the teacher to CO-CONSTRUCT MEANING
**Thus, stds benefit from communication w/each other, members of the school community and the community at large.
**Practice reader's theatre & put on a performance.
**Develop interview questions for a community survey
**Plan an exbhibition of art or written work & invite the public
Zone of proximal development
the distance between the ACTUAL development level of independent problem solving and the level of POTENTIAL development under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers
The 4 kinds of knowledge in the Interlanguage Theory
1. Knowledge about the 2nd language
2. Competence in the native language
3. Ability to use the function of language
4. General world knowledge
The language stds produce is an INTERLANGUAGE: an intermediate system they create as they attempt to achieve native-like competence
an intermediate system of language stds create as they attempt to achieve native-like competence.
*A learner's lang. should be viewed as creative w/rules unique to itself, NOT just a borrowed or incomplete form of the target language.
**Instead of seeing stds' errors as failures, teachers can use them for instruction that must follow.
**Thus, interlanguage theory uses error analysis & data-driven instruction by using assessments to shape instruction.
According to Interlanguage Theory, 2nd lang. learners draw from 3 sources of information:
1. Rules of their own language (the way phonemes sound, the way sentences are formed, etc.)
2. General knowledge about the way languages work
3. Rules of the new lang. that they acquire gradually.
Krashen's Monitor Model Theory
"Languages are acquired best when lang. acquirers comprehend messages and lower the mental & emotional blocks that prevent them from fully comprehending input."
Krashen's theory has 5 distinct hypotheses:
1. Acquisition-learning hypothesis
2. Natural order hypothesis
3. The Monitor hypothesis
4. The Input hypothesis
5. The Affective Filter hypothesis
-Distinguishes acquisition from learning:
~Learning is "knowing about" a language (grammar, rules of the language)
~Acquisition is an unconscious process when language is used for real communication
-Krashen considered acquisition more important than learning.
Natural order hypothesis
There's a predictable order of acquiring Eng. morphemes. (Ex: children lean how to express a negative structure: first, they put the marker outside, then between subject & verb, then put it in the correct place.
The Monitor hypothesis
the "monitor" is an error-detecting mechanism that scans utterances for accuracy & edits it either before or after attempted communication.
However, it can't always be used, esp. in rapid verbal exchanges.
The Affective Filter hypothesis
relates to emotional variables.
Anxiety, motivation & self-esteem can block input from reaching the LAD (lang. acquisition device).
Less info enters the LAD, so less language is acquired.
Cummins's Theories of Bilingualism & Cognition
being bilingual is a cognitive advantage & that knowledge in the 1st lang. provides a firm foundation for 2nd lang. acquisition.
Emphasis on the strengths the learner brings to learning a 2nd lang.
Meaning-Center Approaches to acquiring a 2nd language
learners generate hypotheses from, and are actively constructing interpretations about oral & written input they receive.
language must contain "comprehensible" input.
Simply immersing a learner in a 2nd lang. is not sufficient.
Critics say this can't be measured.
*This hypothesis ignores the active role of the learner in communicating & negotiating useful & understandable language.
**Teacher need to use a variety of techniques & modalities, including visual & kinesthetic, to ensure their speech is comprehensible.
studies ways that humans use signs, symbols, icons & indexes to create meaning.
Has become important in the last decode as sophisticated computer art, animation & graphics programs have opened up a lang. of 2-dimensional shape & color that supplements (if not replaces) text as a source of info.
Stages of 2nd lang. acquisition through which all learners progress
1. Preproduction (aka "silent period")
2. Early Production
3. Speech Emergence
4. Intermediate Fluency
the emotional side of human behavior
Affective factors such as ____determine how lang. acquisition and communication take place
self esteem, motivation, anxiety, attitudes
Activities to enhance self esteem
-Press Release: stds write news story about a time when they achieved victory or met a goal
-Age Power: stds answer the question "What do you like about your present age?"
-Name Game: stds introduce themselves by 1st name, adding a word describing how they're feeling that day--a word beginning w/the same letter as their 1st name, then each person repeats what the others have said in sequence.
-Name Interviews:stds work in pairs on a teacher-provided questionnaire with questions like: "What do you like about your name: Who named you? Were you named for someone? Are there members of your family who have the same name?
is related to self esteem. Defensiveness against new experiences & feelings.
**Emphasizing fluency over accuracy in the 1st stages of lang. learning may help stds feel less inhibited to take risks & gamble with the meaning of words not not be concerned about making errors.
the impulse, emotion or desire to act in a certain way. There are 2 types:
1. Instrumental: the need to acquire lang. for a specific purpose (get a job)
2. Integrative: the desire to become a member of the culture
Activities to curb anxiety
**Write letters to an advice columnist about a difficulty they're having learning the lang. Then working in grps, stds read & discuss letters, offer advice & return letters to their owners for discussion.
**Stds collect errors over several class periods & in grps, asses the errors, then rate them on a scale of 1-3 for qualities of amusement, originality, intelligibility, & then tally point to reward the "winning" error.