47 terms

ch. 18 Blood


Terms in this set (...)

Functions of the Circulatory System
Circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood
Cardiovascular system refers only to the heart and blood vessels
Hematology—the study of blood
Functions of circulatory system;
Transport , protection, and Regulation
nutrients, wastes, hormones, and stem cells
Inflammation, limit spread of infection, destroy microorganisms and cancer cells, neutralize toxins, and initiate clotting
Fluid balance, stabilizes pH of ECF, and temperature control
Components and General Properties of Blood 1
Adults have 4 to 6 L of blood
A liquid connective tissue consisting of cells and extracellular matrix
- Formed elements
-Seven kinds of formed elements
: matrix of blood
Clear, light yellow fluid
formed elements
blood cells and cell fragments
Red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets
Seven kinds of formed elements
Seven kinds of formed elements/ Components and General Properties of Blood 2
1)Erythrocytes: red blood cells (RBCs)
Cell fragments from special cell in bone marrow
Leukocytes: white blood cells (WBCs)
Five leukocyte types divided into two categories

Granulocytes (with granules)

Agranulocytes (without granules)
Formed elements of blood
Components and General Properties of Blood 3
White blood cells and platelets
—centrifuge blood to separate components
Erythrocytes (Red Blood Cells)
are heaviest and settle first
37% to 52% total volume
White blood cells and platelets
1% total volume
Buffy coat
The remainder of volume
47% to 63%
Complex mixture of water, proteins, nutrients, electrolytes, nitrogenous wastes, hormones, and gases
Components of blood
blood plasma
-Three major categories of plasma proteins
-Plasma proteins are formed by liver
-Nitrogenous compounds
-Dissolved , , and nitrogen
—liquid portion of blood
: remaining fluid when blood clots and solids are removed
Identical to plasma except for the absence of fibrinogen
Three major categories of plasma proteins
: smallest and most abundant
Contribute to viscosity and osmolarity; influence blood pressure, flow, and fluid balance
Globulins (antibodies)
Provide immune system functions
Alpha, beta, and gamma globulins
Precursor of fibrin threads that help form blood clots
Plasma proteins are formed by liver
Except globulins (produced by plasma cells)
nitrogenous compounds
Free amino acids from dietary protein or tissue breakdown
Nitrogenous wastes (urea)
Nitrogenous wastes (urea)
Toxic end products of catabolism
Normally removed by the kidneys
Glucose, vitamins, fats, cholesterol, phospholipids, and minerals
makes up 90% of plasma cations
Viscosity of blood
—resistance of a fluid to flow, resulting from the cohesion of its particles
-Whole blood
whole blood
4.5 to 5.5 times as viscous as water
is 2.0 times as viscous as water
Important in circulatory function
osmolarity of blood
—the total molarity of those dissolved particles that cannot pass through the blood vessel wall
>If too high, blood absorbs too much water, increasing the blood pressure
>If too low, too much water stays in tissue, blood pressure drops, and edema occurs
>Optimum osmolarity is achieved by the body's regulation of sodium ions, proteins, and red blood cells
Starvation and Plasma Protein Deficiency
Deficiency of plasma proteins
Extreme starvation
Liver or kidney disease
Severe burns
Children with severe protein deficiency
Fed on cereals once weaned
Thin arms and legs
Swollen abdomen
How Blood is Produced 1
-Adult production of 400 billion platelets, 100-200 billion RBCs, and 10 billion WBCs every day


-Hemopoietic tissues produce blood cells
—production of blood, especially its formed elements
Hemopoietic tissues produce blood cells
-Yolk sac produces stem cells for first blood cells
>Colonize fetal bone marrow, liver, spleen, and thymus
-Liver stops producing blood cells at birth
-Spleen remains involved with lymphocyte production
-Red bone marrow produces all seven formed elements
Red bone marrow produces all seven formed elements
-Pluripotent stem cells (PPSC)
-Myeloid hemopoiesis
-Lymphoid hemopoiesis
pluripotent stem cells (PPSC)
Formerly called hemocytoblasts or hemopoietic stem cells
-forming unit—specialized stem cells only producing one class of formed element of blood
myeloid hemopoiesis
—blood formation in the bone marrow
lymphoid hemopoiesis
—blood formation in the lymphatic organs (beyond infancy this only involves lymphocytes)
Expected Learning Outcomes
Discuss the structure and function of erythrocytes (RBCs).
Describe the structure and function of hemoglobin.
State and define some clinical measurements of RBC and hemoglobin quantities.
Describe the life cycle of erythrocytes.
Name and describe the types, causes, and effects of RBC excesses and deficiencies.
-Two principal functions
1.Carry oxygen from lungs to cell tissues
2.Pick up from tissues and bring to lungs

-Insufficient RBCs can cause death in minutes due to lack of oxygen to tissues
-Disc-shaped cell with thick rim
7.5 μm diameter and 2.0 μm thick at rim
-Lose nearly all organelles during development
-Lack mitochondria
-Anaerobic fermentation to produce ATP
-Lack of nucleus and DNA
No protein synthesis or mitosis
structure of erythrocytes
Biconcave, anucleate
Form and Function of erythrocyte
-Blood type determined by surface glycoproteins and glycolipids
-Gas transport
-Cytoskeletal proteins (spectrin and actin) give membrane durability and resilience
Stretch and bend as squeezed through small capillaries

Carbonic anhydrase (CAH) in cytoplasm
Carbonic anhydrase (CAH) in cytoplasm
Produces carbonic acid from and water
Important role in gas transport and pH balance