83 terms

AP Environmental Science Chapter 23

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Terms in this set (...)

municipal solid waste
solid materials discarded by homes, office buildings, retail stores, restaurants, schools, hospitals, prisons, libraries, and other commercial and institutional facilities
nonmunicipal solid waste
Solid waste generated by industry, agriculture, and mining (most waste produced)
sanitary landfills
Disposal sites for non-hazardous solid waste that is spread in layers and compacted to the smallest practical volume. The sites are typically designed with leachate collection systems, layered with compacted clay and plastic liners, and are covered by soil as the wastes are compacted and deposited into the landfill
incinerator
facilities that burn waste (such as paper, plastic and rubber) in order to reduce the volume of solid waste and create energy. This type of waste management creates air pollution if not properly operated (such as releasing dioxins into the air) and is expensive due to safety procedures
reduce
most important of the three R's (reduce, reuse, recycle)
Earth 911
Website that puts you in touch with companies that will take materials you want to reuse/recycle
Construction Junction
Where should you bring old construction materials?
Freeride
Where should you bring old bikes?
Center for Creative Reuse
Where should you bring old art supplies?
0.75, 4.5
The average American recycles ____ lb of material but trashes ____lbs
Ethiopia
Books discarded by fcasd elementary schools are shipped to___ (Books for Africa)
curbside
Rural recycling is made difficult by the fact that less populated areas often do not have____pick up (residents must drive their recycling)
deposit fee
Certain states charge money (_____ _____) for recyclable materials, which is returned to the consumer once the product is recycled (homeless people collect recyclables for money)
dump
An open hole where trash is deposited; unregulated and unsafe.
declining
The number of landfills in the US is_______
scarcity, produce methane, water contamination, plastics last forever, NIMBY (not in my backyard mentality)
Problems with landfills (5)
40
Pennsylvania's landfills will last about___more years, and more populated states, like New York, have already run out of landfills
tipping fee
cost of dumping/processing trash in a landfill. As the number of landfills decreases, the price of disposal skyrockets
1, 20
It takes the same amount of energy to make___new can as it does to make___recycled cans
Medical waste, recyclable materials, fluorescent lights, hazardous chemicals, leaves, batteries, paint, tires
Eight items that should not go in the trash
ewaste facilities
Where should electronic waste be sent?
Auto service centers
Where should you dispose of motor oil?
pharmacy
Where should medical waste go?
composting
yard/organic food waste turns into soil/mulch
reefs, rubberized asphalt, shredded for playgrounds, fuel
uses for tires
3rd world
although it is illegal to dump old electronics overseas, but most are still sent to ___ ___ countries, where they are taken apart at the expense of workers' health
styrofoam, recycled
EPS/expanded polystyrene (____) can be____, but only in special facilities
less
The US recycles (more/less) of its waste than European countries
source reduction
the design, manufacture, purchase or use of materials and products to reduce the amo​unt or toxicity of what is thrown away; essentially stopping waste before it happens (ex: substituting hazardous materials for less harmful ones)
product stewardship
manufacturers assume responsibility for minimizing a product's environmental impact throughout all stages of the products' life cycle (reduce impact of production, make sure all components are reusable/recyclable, reuse/recycle old products at the plant where they were produced, etc.)
dematerialization
the progressive decrease in the size and weight of a product as a result of technological improvements (only effective if the life span of the product remains unchanged)
Cullet
crushed glass food and beverage containers that are melted to make new products
paper, glass (only from packaging, not windows), metals , plastic, tires
recyclable materials
many kinds are mixed together
Why is recycling plastics difficult?
fee-per-bag approach
many communities have reduced the volume of solid waste and encouraged reuse and recycling by charging households for each container of solid waste
Love Canal
1977 discovery of chemical waste contamination of homes/people and the resulting health issues (birth defects, psychological disorders, etc.) associated with chemical waste. Brought about Superfund legislation
hazardous waste
any discarded chemical material that threatens human health or the environment
dioxins
group of similar chemical compounds formed as by-products during the combustion of chlorine compounds (emitted by the incineration of medical/municipal solid wastes and pulp/paper plants). Accumulate in the food chain and collect in the body's fatty tissues to cause cancer and disrupt the reproductive, immune, and nervous systems
PCBs
synthetic chemicals containing chlorine that are used in the manufacture of plastics and other industrial products, become stored in the tissue of animals, and accumulate in the food chain. Cause damage to the skin, eyes, reproductive organs, gastrointestinal system, and are endocrine disrupters. Also thought to cause cancer and are especially prevalent in aquatic life
Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
act that manages hazardous waste currently being produced
Superfund Act/CERCLA
established a program to tackle the challenge of cleaning up abandoned and illegal toxic waste sites across the US. Holds polluters accountable for damage by charging them for cleanup (deters future carelessness)
Superfund National Priorities List
the sites that pose the greatest threat to public health and the environment are placed on this list. Become more urgent as cities spring up around them
bioremediation
the use of bacteria and other microorganisms to break down hazardous waste
phytoremediation
the use of plants to absorb and accumulate toxic material from the soil. Limited success due to the fact that plants can only absorb root-deep toxins and that the plants (now poisonous) may be eaten by animals
environmental chemistry
the study of redesigning commercially important chemical processes to minimize environmental harm (source reduction)
poor minority
What areas are more likely to have hazardous waste facilities, landfills, sewage treatment plants, or incinerators?
environmental justice
every citizen, regardless of age, race, gender, social class, etc. is entitled to adequate protection from environmental hazards
Environmental Justice Advisory Council
council that provides grants to help low-income communities address local environmental problems and ensures fairness in selecting waste processing sights
Basel Convention
UN treaty which restricts international transport of toxic waste (many developed countries were sending hazardous materials to underdeveloped nations to skirt around expensive regulations, causing the problems we're now trying to clean up in the US in other countries)
integrated waste management
an approach to waste disposal that employs several waste reduction, management, and disposal strategies in order to reduce the environmental impact of solid waste
voluntary simplicity
the idea that individual happiness is not tied to material possessions (consume less, community sharing, etc.)
methane
highly combustable greenhouse gas collected from landfills. Formerly burned by flares, but now often used to create electricity in waste-to-energy programs
microcosm
Easter Island is a _____ of the real world that serves as a warning to what will happen if we do not take decisive action on climate change
anthropology
study of human cultures that has revealed to us much of what happened on Easter Island
Fertile Crescent
area of rich, fertile land where farming originally began. Now the Middle East (desert), which has been completely stripped of its resources through overuse
mansions
the stone statues on Easter Island are equivalent to what in our society?
lime scrubbers
air pollution-control devices in which a chemical spray neutralizes acidic gases emitted from incinerators
electrostatic precipitators
air pollution-control devices that give incinerator ash a positive electrical charge so that it adheres to negatively charged plates
bottom ash, fly ash
types of ash produced by incinerators are ____ (the residual ash left at the bottom of the incinerator) and ____ (ash from the flue or chimney; more toxic)
Three R's
reduce, reuse, recycle
Columbia River
What waterway is directly threatened by the Hanford Nuclear Reservation?
external cost
the cost associated with the manufacture, use and disposal of a product that is not directly part of the initial price of the product
CFCs (chlorofluorocarbons)
chemical compounds used in aerosol cans that destroy atmospheric ozone (also found in refrigerators and air conditioners -- currently being fazed out)
CA, PA, NY, MI, NJ
top five Superfund states (abbreviations)
Khian Sea
Bahamian ship that spent spent years transporting incinerated ash from Philadelphia around the world, eventually dumping it in the Indian Ocean
Rikers Island
New York jail that operates an innovative waste disposal program involving recycling, composting, and gardening
1000, over 6500
The average US family of four recycles _____ lbs and creates _____ lbs of trash each year
Pollution Prevention Act
act that requires that the government, businesses, and people minimize the amount of harmful substances entering the air, waterways, and land. The act establishes activities for recycling, source reduction, and sustainable agriculture. It helps to promote the conservation of energy, water, and natural resources by reducing pollution at the point of origin instead of mitigating damage caused by the release of pollutants
US
the country with the highest percent of recycled municipal waste
aluminum
what material is recycled at the highest percentage in the US?
New Jersey
state with the greatest number of sites on the Superfund National Priorities List
car fluff
complex mixture of shredded automobile materials including plastics, foam, textiles, rubber and glass. Because it is complex and is contaminated with rust, dirt, and a variety of fluids, its recyclability poses a challenge. Some car manufacturers have found ways to turn this material into usable parts, such as silencer padding
obsolescence
the process of becoming obsolete or outdated and no longer used. Contributes to computers being replaced every 2 years on average
HDPE (high density polyethylene), LDPE (low density polyethylene), PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PS (polystyrene)
Types of plastics (4)
PET
plastic used in soda bottles; most commonly recycled plastic
polystyrene
plastic used to make styrofoam and styrofoam products
Neville Island
where was hazardous chemical waste dumped near Pittsburgh?
photodegradable
products that degrade when exposed to sunlight
phytoremediation plants
sunflowers, willow trees, poplar trees, indian mustard, brake fern
surface impoundments
uncovered pools of hazardous waste (type of hazardous waste storage). Cheap, but often contaminates groundwater and threatens wildlife
Yucca Mountain project
plan to store hazardous waste underground (below Yucca Mountain, Nevada). Shut down by President Obama in favor of storing hazardous wastes at the facilities where they were made
Benzene
chemical that causes leukemia and other cancers (dumped on Neville Island, where it contaminated residents' water)
less
energy created by incineration produces (more/less) CO2 than energy produced by fossil fuels, oil, or coal