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PSYC 361 Motivation
Flashcards for Midterm 1
Organisms engage in behaviours that are expected to have desirable outcomes and avoid ones that are expected to have aversive outcomes.
The belief that all events are caused by the
things that happened before them.
The mind and body are qualitatively different.
The mind and body are the same.
The mind and body are qualitatively different. What the body does depends on the mind, the interaction occurs in the pineal gland.
The mind and body are separate but the mind does not cause the body to do anything. There should be different methods for studying each.
The view that if we know the world only from experience, then experience may be all there is (Matrix).
The mind is what the brain does.
Criteria for a Good Theory (4)
System for understanding scientific language.
Something which is defined in terms of itself.
2 Approaches to Motivation
Emphasizes the body's response to disruptive internal forces like hunger and pain and the way the body tries to restore homeostasis.
Emphasizes the goal directed nature of behaviour, less concerned with physiology.
Responses to emotionally arousing situations come before the emotional experience. Bear--> Run--> Afraid.
Visceral changes are too slow to account for emotions.
Papez Circuit. Set of pathways in the core of the brain that constitute the neural circuitry underlying emotional response and behaviour.
Limbic System Parts
Amygdala, Mammillary Body, Hippocampus, Fornix, Cortex Cingulate Gyrus, Septum, Olfactory Bulb, Hypothalamus.
3 Aspects of Affective Experience
Temperament, Mood, Emotion.
Stable tendencies toward having positive or negative affect.
Relatively enduring, weak but pervasive, no specific recognized source.
Brief and intense with a specific object towards which to act.
2 Variables for Studying Emotion
Behavioural (Verbal and Non-Verbal), Physiological.
Central Nervous System
Brain and Spinal Cord.
Peripheral Nervous System
All the nerves and everything else.
Somatic Nervous System
Regulates interactions with the environment; Sensory input and muscle movements.
Autonomic Nervous System
Regulates internal body activities in solved in maintaining and replenishing the body. Divides into: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems.
Sympathetic Nervous System
ANS. Concerned with emergency functions like fight or flight.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
ANS. Concerned with digestive activity.
medial forebrain bundle
ventral tegmental area
Expressing and recognizing emotion and learning emotional associations. Fear and negative emotions.
Pyramidal Motor System
Responsible for voluntary emotional responses, genuine facial expressions.
Extrapyramidal Motor System
Involuntary emotional responses, false facial expressions.
The automatic adjustments that the body makes to restore stability.
Tell us when to stop an activity. Negative feedback or energy state monitoring.
Feed Forward Signals
Anticipatory signals, like the sight of food or cold hands, that get us to prepare for an event.
Hormone, reduces pleasure from ingested food so the anima stops eating, negative feedback signal.
Insulin released from the pancreas into the blood in response to an increase of glucose, fat, or amino acids; homeostatic mechanism.
Proper Diet Proportions
Genetically wired to select the proper food (Koalas).
Can mind an adequate diet among many different combinations of foods, must map wise choices about what to eat (omnivores).
Cafeteria Diet Studies
All foods for a well rounded diet are available and the animal is allowed to eat freely. Children and animals eat an appropriate diet unless there are high preference foods present.
Dual Hypothalamic Theory of Hunger
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is an excitatory area for feeding and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is an inhibitory area for feeding.
Sucrose (sweet), Quinine (bitter), Sodium Chloride (salty), Citric Acid (sour).
Salt regulating hormone in the adrenal glands, when this is absent preference for salt goes up.
Disease of the adrenal gland, lose mass amounts of salt in urine and thus consume large amounts of salt.
Under deprivation conditions the acceptability of particular tastes is increased.
The process of learning to associate the CS with the US.
The decline of the conditioned response when the CS is presented without the US.
When we are conditioned to one CS we are also less strongly conditioned to similar stimuli.
Stimulus Substitution Model
One stimulus comes to substitute for another stimulus by evoking the same response.
Stimulus Representation Model
The CS is associated with an image of the US in the brain.
The occurrence of the US is contingent on the occurrence of the CS.
Approaching new stimuli timidly, learned safety.
Drinking in direct response to the need for water.
Drinking in response to other factors.
Double Depletion Hypothesis
2 mechanisms stimulate us to drink. Intra cellular and extra cellular.
Specialized brain cells that detect a concentration difference and signal the brain to initiate action. (Intra/Extra cellular mechanisms)
When 2 CS's are always paired together and conditioned to the same US: the more salient of the pair will evoke a stranger CR (loud sound vs. dim light).
Males will copulate to satiety with one female then immediately engage in sexual behaviour with a novel female.
Cognitive Labelling Theory of Emotion
Emotional experience depends on bodily changes, bodily changes do precede emotions but arousal must be interpreted.
Discrete Theories of Emotion
There are very few distinct emotions, all the rest are just variations.
Dimensional Theories of Emotion
Emotional states are plotted based on how pleasant/unpleasant and hugh/low arousal.
Opponent Process Theory
Assumes separate systems underlying positive and negative emotions.
Sensory Specific Satiety
A reduction in the subjective desire for food having eaten it to satiety.
Sham Eating Study
In rats, when the for never gets to the stomach they eat a varied diet, more unfamiliar and differences in sizes.
Insula & Basal Ganglia
Disgust recognition and experience, motor control, learning, action selection.
Allows integration of emotional responses, higher order cognition and action.
Attention, planning, impulse control, social awareness, judgement, organization; executive functions.
Antecedent, Intervening, Consequent
IV, concept, DV.
Water deprivation (or none), Thirst (no thirst), Running fast (running slow).
3 Phases of Eating
Cephalic, Absorptive, Fasting.
Cephalic Phase of Eating
Preparation to eat, often triggered by sight or smell of food.
Absorptive Phase of Eating
Energy from food absorbed into bloodstream, body's needs being met.
Unstored energy from pervious meal has been used, body is using energy reserves.
High blood glucose-->beta cells of pancreas release insulin-->fat cells take in glucose from blood--> glucose levels back to normal. This happens when there is too much glucose in the blood.
Low blood glucose-->alpha cells of pancreas release glucagon-->liver releases glucose into blood-->glucose levels back to normal. This happens when there is not enough glucose in the blood.
Positive Incentive Perspective
Higher order mammals are drawn to eat by the anticipated pleasure of eating.