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Organisms engage in behaviours that are expected to have desirable outcomes and avoid ones that are expected to have aversive outcomes.
The mind and body are qualitatively different. What the body does depends on the mind, the interaction occurs in the pineal gland.
The mind and body are separate but the mind does not cause the body to do anything. There should be different methods for studying each.
The view that if we know the world only from experience, then experience may be all there is (Matrix).
Emphasizes the body's response to disruptive internal forces like hunger and pain and the way the body tries to restore homeostasis.
Emphasizes the goal directed nature of behaviour, less concerned with physiology.
Responses to emotionally arousing situations come before the emotional experience. Bear--> Run--> Afraid.
Papez Circuit. Set of pathways in the core of the brain that constitute the neural circuitry underlying emotional response and behaviour.
Limbic System Parts
Amygdala, Mammillary Body, Hippocampus, Fornix, Cortex Cingulate Gyrus, Septum, Olfactory Bulb, Hypothalamus.
Somatic Nervous System
Regulates interactions with the environment; Sensory input and muscle movements.
Autonomic Nervous System
Regulates internal body activities in solved in maintaining and replenishing the body. Divides into: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous Systems.
Expressing and recognizing emotion and learning emotional associations. Fear and negative emotions.
Feed Forward Signals
Anticipatory signals, like the sight of food or cold hands, that get us to prepare for an event.
Hormone, reduces pleasure from ingested food so the anima stops eating, negative feedback signal.
Insulin released from the pancreas into the blood in response to an increase of glucose, fat, or amino acids; homeostatic mechanism.
Can mind an adequate diet among many different combinations of foods, must map wise choices about what to eat (omnivores).
Cafeteria Diet Studies
All foods for a well rounded diet are available and the animal is allowed to eat freely. Children and animals eat an appropriate diet unless there are high preference foods present.
Dual Hypothalamic Theory of Hunger
The lateral hypothalamus (LH) is an excitatory area for feeding and the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) is an inhibitory area for feeding.
Salt regulating hormone in the adrenal glands, when this is absent preference for salt goes up.
Disease of the adrenal gland, lose mass amounts of salt in urine and thus consume large amounts of salt.
When we are conditioned to one CS we are also less strongly conditioned to similar stimuli.
Stimulus Substitution Model
One stimulus comes to substitute for another stimulus by evoking the same response.
Specialized brain cells that detect a concentration difference and signal the brain to initiate action. (Intra/Extra cellular mechanisms)
When 2 CS's are always paired together and conditioned to the same US: the more salient of the pair will evoke a stranger CR (loud sound vs. dim light).
Males will copulate to satiety with one female then immediately engage in sexual behaviour with a novel female.
Cognitive Labelling Theory of Emotion
Emotional experience depends on bodily changes, bodily changes do precede emotions but arousal must be interpreted.
Discrete Theories of Emotion
There are very few distinct emotions, all the rest are just variations.
Dimensional Theories of Emotion
Emotional states are plotted based on how pleasant/unpleasant and hugh/low arousal.
Sham Eating Study
In rats, when the for never gets to the stomach they eat a varied diet, more unfamiliar and differences in sizes.
Insula & Basal Ganglia
Disgust recognition and experience, motor control, learning, action selection.
Attention, planning, impulse control, social awareness, judgement, organization; executive functions.
Antecedent, Intervening, Consequent
IV, concept, DV.
Water deprivation (or none), Thirst (no thirst), Running fast (running slow).
High blood glucose-->beta cells of pancreas release insulin-->fat cells take in glucose from blood--> glucose levels back to normal. This happens when there is too much glucose in the blood.
Low blood glucose-->alpha cells of pancreas release glucagon-->liver releases glucose into blood-->glucose levels back to normal. This happens when there is not enough glucose in the blood.
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