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Chapter 10 - Blood
Terms in this set (82)
What are the functions of blood?
Transporation, Protection, and Regulation
What substances does blood transport?
oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, hormones, and cellular wastes
What protection does blood offer?
protections against harmfuls substances (toxins, pathogens) and protections from fluid loss (clotting)
What functions does blood regulate?
Body Temperature (blood vessel dilation/constriction) and Acid-Base balance of body fluids
Blood is red in color because it contains the protein pigment ____.
The color of oxygen poor blood is ____.
Dark red with bluish tinge
The color of oxygen rich blood is ___.
Bright Crimsom Red
The average volume of blood in the adult female is ____.
4 to 5 Liters
The average volume of blood in the adult male is ___.
5 to 6 Liters
Because blood is thicker, denser and more adhesive, blood is said to be more ___ than water.
What is the pH of blood?
slightly basic-- 7.3 to 7.4
What are the two components of blood?
Formed Elements and Plasma
What are the three formed elements?
Red Blood Cells, White Blood Cells and Platelets
What is a hematocrit?
test that separates blood into its components by
spinning it at high speeds. It is use to determine the percentages of formed elements and plasma
Which formed element is most abundant?
Red Blood Cells
What is the primary function of red blood cells?
Red blood cell production is regulated by a hormone called ____.
Which organ regulate the productions of red blood cells by secreting erythropoietin?
The kidneys and liver
What is the structure of a red blood cell?
small, flexible, biconcaved disc
Another name for a red blood cells is a ___.
In adults formed elements are produced in the ___.
Red Bone Marrow
What is hematopoiesis?
The production of the formed elements
Why are red blood cells biconcaved?
They lack a nucleus
What is the life expectancy of a red blood cells?
About 120 days
What happens to worn out or damaged red blood cells?
They are phagocytyzed by white blood cells and their contents are broken down excreted (pigments) or recycled (iron)
What is the function of white blood cells?
Protection against infection
How do white blood cells compare to red blood cells?
White blood cells are larger, less numerous, and contain a nucleus
What is diapedisis?
An ability of white blood cells that allow them to travel outside the blood vessels and into connective tissue to fight disease
What is phagocytosis?
When white blood cells surround a particle and engulf and digest it
What are antibodies?
substances produced by some white blood cells that destroy or disable foreign particles
White blood cells are divided into what two groups?
Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
What are the three kinds of granulocytes?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils
What is the function of neutrophils?
phagocytize small particles
What is the function of eosinophils?
kills parasites and helps control inflammation and allergic reactions
What is the function of basophils?
releases heparin and histamine
What are the two type of Agranulocytes?
monocytes and lymphocytes
What is the function of monocytes?
phagocytize large particles
What is the function of lymphocytes?
provides immunity by producing antibodies
What is another name for white blood cells?
What is a granulocyte?
White blood cell with highly visible granules in its cytoplasm
What is a agranulocyte?
white blood cell without high visible granules in its cytoplasm
What are some characteristics of platelets?
smaller than red blood cells, contain no nucleus, classified as partial cells, and have a life span of about 10 days
What is the function of platelets?
Prevent fluid loss
What is blood plasma?
the clear, staw-colored liquid portion of blood
What is the largest component of blood plasma?
What other components are found in blood plasma?
proteins, electrolytes, hormones, nutrients
What is hemostasis?
the stoppage of bleeding
What are the three steps of hemostasis.
Blood Vessel Spasm (Vasospasm), Platelet Plug Formation, Coagulation
What is blood vessel spasm and how does it aid in hemostasis?
the blood vessel constricts making it smaller so less blood is allowed to flow. Effective for only small vessels
What is platelet plug formation and how does it aid in hemostasis?
platelets increase in size, become irregular in shape and stick together forming a plug of platelets.
What is coagulation?
Blood Clot Formation
What are the steps of coagulation?
1. A series of reactions with Calcium cause soluble fibrinogen to become insoluble fibrin.
2. Fibrin forms a net that catches formed elements creating a clot
What factors can interfer with blood coagulation?
dietary deficiencies, liver disease, or an inherited deficiency
What is a Thrombus?
an undesirable clot that may cause heart attacks and strokes
What is an Embolus?
a thrombus that has detached and is moving to different places in the body
What is the basis for blood groupings?
antigens which are surface proteins on red blood cells
What are the four blood types of the ABO system?
A, B, AB, and O
Which blood type has the A antigen?
Which blood type has the B antigen?
Which blood type as both antigens?
Which blood type has no antigens?
Which blood type produces anti-B antibodies?
Which blood type produces anti-A antibodies?
Which blood type produces no antibodies?
Which blood type produces both anti-A and anti-B antibodies
Type A blood can be donated to ___.
People with A or AB blood
Type B blood can be donated to ___.
People with B or AB blood
Type AB blood can be donated to ___.
People with AB blood
Type O blood can be donated to ____.
People with A, B, AB, or O blood.
People with Type O blood can receive from ____.
only people with type O blood
People with Type A blood can receive from ___.
People with type A or O blood
People with Type B blood can receive from ___.
people with type B or O blood
People with Type AB blood can receive from ___.
people with type A, B, AB, or O blood
Which blood type is the universal recipient?
Which blood type is the universal donor?
What happens when you mix incompatible blood types?
the blood agglutinates and forms clumps that blood blood vessels. can cause pain, organ failure, and death
What does it mean to have positive blood?
the Rh antigen is found on the surface of the red blood cell.
What happen when a person with Rh- blood receives Rh+ blood?
Rh sensitization - the individual starts to produce anti-Rh antibodies.
How does the Rh antigen cause problems during pregnancy?
if a Rh- woman has already developed anti-Rh antibodies caused by the birth of her 1st Rh+ baby, the antibodies may cross the placenta and attack her second Rh+ baby's red blood cells
Rh sensitization occures when ___
a Rh- mom is carrying and Rh+ baby
Explain the significance of white blood cell counts as aids to diagnosing diseases.
a rise in wbc's indicate an infection like an appendicitis, low wbc count can indicate diseases like measles, mumps, AIDS, or chicken pox
Describe how a person may become sensitized to Rh+ blood.
Rh- individuals are exposed to Rh+ blood. This may occur during child birth or miscarrying.
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