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History Exam 2010
Terms in this set (130)
growth to a global or worldwide scale
the religion of Muslims collectively which governs their civilization and way of life
a believer or follower of Islam
A peninsula between the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf where Islam origniated and the Muslim empires had their beginnings
the Semitic language of the Arabs
the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina
A group of Islamic religion that believes that its religious leader should be elected based on merit.
A group of Islamic religion that believes that its religious leader should be a descendant of Muhammad
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran
a member of the Turkish-speaking ethnic group in Turkey, or, formerly, in the Ottoman Empire
the Turkish dynasty that ruled the Ottoman Empire from the 13th century to its dissolution after World War I
the act of consolidating power under a central control
system of managing government through departments run by appointed officials
Suleiman the Magnificent
an Ottoman ruler who ruled from 1520-1566. Under his reign, the Turks build the most powerful empire in the world
Son of Suleiman the Magnificent, nicknamed "Sot" because he was a drunk, wrote poetry and enjoyed the pleasures of Sultan more than work that came along with it
the Ottoman sultan's chief minister, who led the meetings of the imperial council
A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs
of or relating to Iran or its people or language or culture
capital city of the Safavid empire
Took the Safavid Empire into its golden age, created an empire that took the best out of all neighboring cultures including Ottomans and Persians, reformed military and civilian life in the empire
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
One of the great Italian artists. He was known as a master. He not only painted portraits, but also designed buildings, wrote poetry, and painted murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.
School of Athens
Raphael's fresco. It's a grandly conceived portrayal of the great masters of Western philosophy, and art historians praise it as a virtually perfect portrayal of Renaissance technique.
a representation of the Virgin Mary mourning over the dead body of Jesus, created by Michelangelo
the illusion of depth and distance created by using the weather in a landscape and dull, pale colors with hazy details in the background of a painting.
a philosophy in which interests and values of human beings are of primary importance
an economic system based on open competition in a free market, in which individuals and companies own the means of production and operate for profit
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
The belief in material things instead of religious things. This was a shift away from Medieval thinking.
a political and social system that developed during the Middle Ages; nobles offered protection and land in return for service, Rhode Island Example
governmental power is spread among more than one person or group
The term applied to Louis XI of France, Henry VII of England, and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain, who strengthened their monarchical authority often by Machiavellian means.
Ferdinand and Isabella
This was the king and queen of Spain who took over the Catholic Spain and started the Spanish Inquisition
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
the remission by the pope of the temporal punishment in purgatory that is still due for sins even after absolution
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
German theologian who led the Reformation
English king who created the Church of England after the Pope refused to annul his marriage (divorce with Church approval)
any member of the peoples living in North or South America before the Europeans arrived
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese explorer. In 1497-1498 he led the first naval expedition from Europe to sail to India, opening an important commercial sea route. (p. 428)
Cape of Good Hope
Southern tip of Africa; first circumnavigated in 1488 by Portuguese in search of direct route to India.
a kind of feudalism granting Spanish colonists control of conquered lands and obliging the Amerindians to provide forced labor and a fixed portion of their harvests
The Azetcs were a Native American Empire who lived in Mexico. Their capital was Tenochtitlan. They worshipped everything around them especially the sun. Cortes conquered them in 1521.
A Deadly disease that Europeans brought to the New World. It spreads Rapidly
Located in Bolivia, one of the richest silver mining centers and most populous cities in colonial Spanish America. (p. 479)
Muslim reign in present day India
greatest Moghul leader of India
created by Akbar, basically a "mixture" of differnt aspects from different faiths into one faith.
Islam + Buddhism = Divine Faith
2050 BC. - 1800 BC.: A new dynasty reunited Egypt. Moved the capital to Thebes. Built irrigation projects and canal between NIle and Red Sea so Egytian ships could trade along coasts of Arabian Penninsula and East Africa. Expanded Egyptian territory:Nubia, Syria.
the imperial dynasty of China from 1279 to 1368
a religion represented by the many groups (especially in Asia) that profess various forms of the Buddhist doctrine and that venerate Buddha
Capital of later Song dynasty; located near East China Sea; permitted overseas trading; population exceeded 1 million.
the social process whereby cities grow and societies become more urban
Civil Service Exam
Confucian exam to acquire a position in the Chinese bureaucracy
the teachings of Confucius emphasizing love for humanity
Succeeded Mongol Yuan dynasty in China in 1368; lasted until 1644; initially mounted huge trade expeditions to southern Asia and elsewhere, but later concentrated efforts on internal development within China.
Commanded the rebel army that drove the mongols out of china
Chinese admiral during the Ming Dynasty, he led great voyages that spread China's fame throughout Asia. Because of him, China decided they did not need to expand. Also known as Cheng Ho
a castrated man placed in charge of a harem
One of the 2 port cities where Europeans were permitted to trade with China during the Ming Dynasty.
One of two ports in which Europeans were permitted to trade in China during the Ming dynasty
the historical pattern of the rise, decline, and replacement of dynasties
Mandate of Heaven
a political theory of ancient China in which those in power were given the right to rule from a divine source
the last imperial dynasty of China (from 1644 to 1912) which was overthrown by revolutionaries
a region in northeastern China
Hereditary military servants of the Qing Empire, in large part descendants of peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire. (p. 684)
Jesuits vs Roman Catholic Church. Jesuits supported ancestor veneration to understand Chinese culture and so the Chinese would convert to Christianity. In the 1700's pope declines
Religious order founded by Ignatius Loyola to counter the inroads of the Protestant Reformation; the Jesuits were active in politics, education, and missionary work.
An Italian Jesuit who by his knowledge of Astronomy and science was accepted as a missionary of China
A member of an originally mendicant religious order founded by St. Francis of Assisi in 1209 and dedicated to the virtues of humility and poverty. It is now divided into three independent branches.
of or relating to Saint Dominic or the Dominican order
a former Chinese custom of touching the ground with the forehead as a sign of respect or submission
a japanese fedal lord who commanded a private army of samurai
Greatest of Japan's founding fathers, given credit for uniting Japan
This man established a shogunate that would dominate Japan for hundreds of years
a hereditary military dictator of Japan
feudal Japanese military aristocracy
led Jesuit missionaries to Asia where by 1550 thousands of natives had been converted to Christianity in India, Indonesia, and Japan
Trading port, after Jesuit disputes, only the Dutch were allowed to reside here, and only for 2-3 months at a time
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
son of Louis VII whose reign as king of France saw wars with the English that regained control of Normandy and Anjou and most of Poitou (1165-1223)
the great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588
king of France from 1643 to 1715; his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles (1638-1715). Absolute.
Edict of Nantes
1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
a palace built in the 17th century for Louis XIV southwest of Paris near the city of Versailles
law determining the fundamental political principles of a government
King of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649). His power struggles with Parliament resulted in the English Civil War (1642-1648) in which Charles was defeated. He was tried for treason and beheaded in 1649
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
This was the Catholic king of England after Charles II that granted everyone religious freedom and even appointed Roman Catholics to positions in the army and government
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689, when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
William and Mary
These people were the king and queen of England after the Glorious Revolution that recognized the supremacy of the English Parliament
English Bill of Rights
To make clear the powers of England's monarchy in 1689, the English Parliament drafted a list of things that they could not do like no taxing without permission from Parliament.
the lawmaking body of British government
British East India Co.
private British trading country that had exclusive trading rights in India
the application of empirical methods in any art or science
the doctrine that reason is the right basis for regulating conduct
the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference
French writer who was the embodiment of 18th century Enlightenment (1694-1778)
French philosopher and writer born in Switzerland
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Scottish economist who advocated private enterprise and free trade (1723-1790)
Italian astronomer and mathematician who was the first to use a telescope to study the stars
Printer, author, inventor, diplomat, statesman, and Founding Father. One of the few Americans who was highly respected in Europe, primarily due to his discoveries in the field of electricity.
1743-1826. Third President of United States. Main author of the Declaration of Independence. Promoted ideals of republicanism in the United States.
Treaty of Paris
a 1763 agreement between britain and france that ended the french and indian war
King of France (1774-1792). In 1789 he summoned the Estates-General, but he did not grant the reforms that were demanded and revolution followed. Louis and his queen, Marie Antoinette, were executed in 1793.
The French national assembly summoned in 1789 to remedy the financial crisis and correct abuses of the ancien regime.
the social class between the lower and upper classes
people who worked the land or served the nobles
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Constitution of 1791
Constitution created by the French Revolution that had a limited monarchy
Republic of France
Comitee of Public Safety
an organization that was given broad power by the National Convention
"The incorruptable;" the leader of the bloodiest portion of the French Revolution. He set out to build a republic of virtue.
Reign of Terror
the historic period (1793-94) during the French Revolution when thousands were executed under Robespierre.
Movement started by the Herbertists - throught traditional religion was counterrevolutionary so devised program to substitute with new cult. Included a new Revolutionary Calendar. Introduced "Cult of Reason"(1793) and climaxed with ceremony in Notre Dame with "Reason" being impersonated by an actress. Robespierre frowned on Cult of Reason and preferred Cult of Supreme Being.
Temples of Reason
turns Catholic philosophies and churches into...
Levee en Masse
Law that obligated all French men between certain ages to enlist in the army.
School of Mars
School where young men were trained to become members of Napoleon's army
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Statement of fundamental political rights adopted by the French National Assembly at the beginning of the French Revolution. (p. 586)
Group of five men who served as liaisons between Robespierre and the Assembly. Overthrown by Napoleon.
Concordat of 1801
This is the agreement between Pope Pius VII and Napoleon that healed the religious division in France by giving the French Catholics free practice of their religion and Napoleon political power
Napoleon's set of laws that declared that all men are equal before the law
Napoleon's efforts to block foreign trade with England by forbidding Importation of British goods Into Europe.
a port city in France, where a song was sung to fight against tyranny - now known as the national anthem of this country.
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