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94 terms

Science Exam

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natural resource
something that is found in nature that is useful to humans
aquatic resource
water and all things that live in or around water....
hydrosphere
all of the Earth's water, including surface water, ground water, and water vapor
resevoirs
an artificial lake used to store water
pollution
the contamination of air, water or soil by substances that are harmful to living organisms
conservation
the wise use of natural resources
dissolved oxygen
oxygen gas absorbed by and mixed into water
water pollution
an excess of natural or man-made substances in a body of water
organic
composed of matter that comes from plants or animals either dead or alive
inorganic
composed of matter that doesn't come from plants or animals either dead or alive
decompose
to decay or rot
aquatic organism
any living thing that is a part of an aquatic ecosystem
water quality
the fitness of water source for a given use such as drinking, fishing, or swimming
atmosphere
the gaseous envelope surrounding the Earth; the air
water cycle
the natural process of evaporation and condensation, driven by solar energy and gravity, that distributes the Earth's water as it evaporates from bodies of water
evaporation
to change from a liquid shape into vapor
biosphere
the part of the world in which life can exist; living organisms and their environment
transpiration
the passage of water through a plant to the atmosphere
acid rain
rain or other precipitation containing a high amount of acidity
surface water
precipitation that runs off the land surface
precipitation
a form of water, such as rain, snow or sleet that condenses from the atmosphere and falls to the Earth's surface
runoff
precipitation not absorbed by soil
wetlands
a low-lying area where the soil is saturated with water
geosphere
the solid part of the Earth consisting of the crust and the outer mantle
saturated
soaked with moisture
ground water
water that flows or collects beneath the Earth's surface in saturated soil or aquifers
aquifers
an underground layer of sand, gravel, or rock that holds water in pores or crevices
recharge areas
water that soaks into and refills an aquifer
weather
the movement of water through the water cycle
watershed
all the land from which water drains into a specific body of water
tributary
a stream that flows into a larger stream or other body of water
watershed address
the watershed, sub-watershed, and sub-sub-watershed that includes a particular location
headwaters
the high ground where precipitation first collects and flows downhill in tiny trickles too small to create a permanent channel
channel
the part of the stream where water collects to flow downstream, including the stream-bed, gravel bars and stream banks
perennial stream
a stream that flows for most of or all of the year
intermittent stream
a stream that flows again at different times of the year
point-source pollution
water pollution that comes from a single source or outlet
non-point pollution
water pollution that comes from a combination of many sources rather that a single outlet
sediment
silt, sand, or rocks and other matter carried and deposited by moving water
erosion
the wearing away of land
physiographic
pertaining to physical geography
adaptation
a behavior or trait that increases a specie's chance of survival in a specific environment
gills
a respiratory organ that enables aquatic animals to take oxygen from water and to excrete carbon dioxide
fins
a wing or paddle-like part of a fish used for propelling, steering, or balancing in the water
swim bladder
an air-filled sac near the spinal column in many fishes that helps maintain buoyancy
scales
any of the small, stiff fat plates that form the outer body covering of most fish
stream bed
the bottom of the stream channel
lateral line
an organ running lengthwise down the sides of fish, used for detecting vibrations for pressure changes
predators
an animal that lives by capturing and eating other animals
prey
an animal that is eaten by a predator
plankton
microscopic free floating plant or animal like organisms
population
a group of individuals of the same species occupying a safe area
community
a group of plants and animals living and interacting with one another in a particular place
habitat
the natural environment in which organisms normally live, including the surroundings and other physical conditions needed to sustain it
compete
the act of actively seeking after and using an environmental resource (such as food) in limited supply by two or more plants or animals
niche
the function position, or role of a species within an ecosystem
biotic
of or having to do with life or living organisms; organic
abiotic
nonliving; not derived from living organisms; inorganic
carrying capacity
an ecosystem's resource limit; the maximum number of individuals in a population that the ecosystem can support
producers
an organism that is able to produce its own from non-living materials, and which serves as a food source for other organisms in a food chain
consumers
an organism that feeds on another organism in a food chain
decomposers
an organism such as bacterium or fungus that feeds on and breaks down dead plants or animals, making essential components available to other organisms
food chain
a series of plants and animals linked by their feeding relationships
food web
many interconnected food chains within an ecological community
energy pyramid
a graphical representation designed to show the relationship between energy and trophic levels of a given ecosystem
trophic levels
a group of organisms that occupy the same position in a food chain; each step of an energy pyramid
natural selection
the natural process in which those organisms best adapted to the conditions under which they live survive and poorly adapted forms are eliminated
ecosystem
a community of organisms together with their physical environment and the relationships between them
aquatic ecosystems
an ecosystem organized around a body of water
rivers
a large stream
streams
a body of flowing water
lakes
a large body of standing water
ponds
a body of standing water small enough that sunlight can reach the bottom across the entire diameter
marshes
a wetland dominated by reeds and other grass like plants
wetlands
a low-lying area where the soil is saturated with water
current
the part of a body of water continuously moving in a different direction
oxbow lake
crescent-shaped lake formed when a bend of a stream is cut off from the main channel
buffers
to serve as a protective barrier to reduce or absorb the impact of other influences
biodiversity
the number and variety of living things in an environment
pools
an area of deeper, slower moving water in a stream
riffles
an area of shallow, faster-following water in a stream
invertebrates
an animal without a spinal chord
stream bank
the shoulder-like sides of the stream channel from the water's edge to the higher ground nearby
riparian zone
land next to the stream, starting at the top of the bank, with heavy plant cover on either side
floodplain
the flat land on both sides of a stream, into which the stream's extra water spreads during a flood
first-order stream
a small stream with no tributaries coming into it
shredders
an aquatic invertebrate that feeds by cutting and tearing organic matter
collectors
an aquatic invertebrate that feeds on fine material
grazers
an aquatic invertebrate that eats aquatic plants (algae)
anglers
fisherman, especially one fishing for pleasure
filter feeders
an aquatic animal that feeds by filtering tiny organisms or fine particles of organic matter from water that passes through it
pond succession
the natural process by which sediment and organic material gradually replace the water volume of a pond
detritus
loose material that results from natural breakdown; material in early stages of decay
anaerobic
ocurring or living in the absence of oxygen