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Unit 3-P.R

STUDY
PLAY
language
A system of communication through the use of speech, a collection of sounds understood by a group of people to have the same meaning.
dialect
A regional variety of a language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation
language family
A collection of languages related to each other through a common ancestor long before recorded history.(indo-european)
language subfamily
a smaller group of related languages within a language family(romance,germanic)
language group
A collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relatively recent past and display relatively few differences in grammar and vocabulary.(individual languages-english,spanish,ect)
isogloss
A boundary that separates regions in which different language usages predominate.
preliterate society
Societies with out a written language
standard language
The form of a language used for official government business, education, and mass communications.
indo-euro languages
...
language convergence
collapsing of two language into one.
language divergence
new languages are formed when a language breaks into dialects
language replacement
Replacement of languages by a stronger language
sound shifts
Tracing language change
deep reconstruction
process by which an extinct language is recreated
nostratic
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
amerind
of or pertaining to American Indians or their culture or languages
eskimo- aleut language
...
agriculture theory
the the theory which states that with increased food supply and increased population, speakers from the hearth of Indo-European languages migrated into Europe
conquest theory
the theory that early Proto-Indo-European speakers spread westward on horseback, overpowering earlier inhabitants and beginning the diffusion and differentiation of Indo-European tounges
toponymy
The study of place names
official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
multilingual states
countries in which more than one language is spoken
lingua franca
A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages
pidgin
a simplified form of speech from combining different languages
creole
a mother tongue that originates from contact between two languages
esperanto
A made-up Latin-based language, which its European proponents in the early twentieth century hoped would become a global language.
racism
the prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races
ethnicity
A social division based on national origin, religion, language, and often race.
plural society
A society composed of numerous ethnic groups.
ethnic islands
small rural area that has one settled ethnic group there
cultural linkage
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity
cultural revival
process that works against globalization, revitalizing cultural ties and promoting distinction.