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Psychology Chapter One
Psychology's roots, Big Ideas, and Critical Thinking Tools
Terms in this set (43)
How has psychology's focus changed over time?
1. First psychological laboratory, 1879, studied the elements of mental experience.
2. Early definition- "science of mental life"
3. Revised by behaviorist in 1920's - "the scientific study of obserable behavior"
4. Current definition- "the science of behavior and mental processes'
What are psychology's current perspectives?
Neuroscience, Evolutionary, Behavior genetics, Psychodymanic, Behavioral, Cognitive, Social-cultural
What are some of psychology's subfields?
Biological, developmental, coginitive personality, industrial-organizational, counseling, clinical, social
What are Psychology's four "big ideas"
1. Critical thinking is smart thinking
2. Behavior is a biopsychosocial event
3. We operate on a two-track mind
4.Psychology explores human strengths as well as challenges
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it. (Also known as the I-knew-it-all-along phenomenon)
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
How do hindsight bias and overconfidence make research findings seem like ordinary common sense?
Both tendencies lead us to overestimate our intuition and common sense.
What are the 3 key elements of scientific attitude and how do they support scientific inquiry?
1. Curiousity triggers new ideas.
2. Skepticism encourages attention to the facts
3. Humility helps us discard predictions that can't be verified by research
- The scientific attitude caries into life as critical thinking.
How do psychological theories guide scientific research?
*Theories organize observations and attempt to explain behaviors
*Theories generate hypotheses
*Research results may validate the theory, or lead to its rejection or revision.
*The precise language used in operational definitions allows replication by others
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events
a statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables. For example, human intelligence may be operationally defined as what an intelligence test measures
Involves a detailed study of a single individual
Study many people in less depth, using random sampling to fairly represent the population being studied
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Studies behavior in naturally occuring situations
Both items increase or decrease together
One item increases as the other decreases
How do correlations permit predictions without cause and effect explanation?
they tell us how well one event predicts another, but not whether one event caused the other, or whether some third factor influenced both events.
perceived relationship that does not exist
Why do we perceive order in random sequences?
They s tand out and are memorable
How do experiments clarify or reveal cause-effect relationships?
*create a controlled, simplified version of reality
*manipulate one factor while controlling others
*measure changes in other factors
*minimize differences between groups (through random assignment)
*compare experimental group results with control group results
*May use a double blind procedure to control for the placebo effect
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth
interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with mental activity (perception, thinking, memory, and language.)
how the body and brain enable emotions, memories, and sensory experiences
how the natural selection of traits promoted the survival of genes
Perspective: Behavior genetics
How much our genes and our environment influence our individual differences
How behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
How we learn observable responses
How we encode, process, store, and retrieve information
How behaviorand thinking vary across situations and cultures
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
the enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
the principle that information is often simultaneously processed on separate conscious and unconscious tracks
assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
How do simplified laboratory conditions help us understand general principles of behavior
Studying specific examples in controlled environments can reveal important general principles
Why do psychologist study animals, and what ethical guidelines safeguard human and animal research participants?
*Research on animals advances our understanind of other speicies and sometimes benefits them directly
*Animal experimentation advances our understanind of ourselves and may help solve human problems.
*Professional ethical standards and other legal guidlines, enforeced by ethics committees, protect participants
How do personal values influence psychologists' research and application? Does psychology aim to manipulate people?
*Values influence choice of research topics, theories and observations, labels for behavior and professional advice
*Psychology's principles could be used for good or evil, but have been used mainly to enlighten and to achieve positive ends.
How can psychology principles help you to become a better student?
*The SQ3R study method can help you learn and remember material
*Five other principles (spacing practice, thinking critically, listening actively, testing yourself, and being a smart test-taker) can help you use your study time effectively.
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