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60 terms

APUSH Chapter 15 People

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Alexis de Tocqueville
The church-going nature of America was noted by this French observer
Also noted that rape in America was punishable by death, whereas in his home of France it was usually overlooked
Deism
sprang out of the Enlightenment (AKA "Age of Reason") and was based on scientific or logical reasoning rather than faith
Unitarian
religion drew followers even farther away from Christianity
• Believed God existed in 1 person ("uni"), but not in the Holy Trinity.
• Rejected the divinity of Christ.
• Believed people were essentially good at heart, not born under "original sin."
• Believed people were saved through "good works", not through faith in Christ.
• Attracted intellectual types, notably Ralph Waldo Emerson
Millerites
• aka Adventists
• predicted Christ's return on October 22, 1844
• When this prophesy failed to materialize, the movement lost credibility
Horace Mann
• known as the "Father of Public Education"
• pushed for free compulsory education
William H. McGuffey
wrote the McGuffey's Reader, contained english lessons and patriotic and moral lessons
University of North Carolina
first state-supported university
William Ladd
led the American Peace Society, dismantled once Civil War began in 1828
American Temperance Society
• founded in Boston, 1826
• used a variety of methods to encourage temperance (discourage drinking)
Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell
became the first female doctor
Margaret Fuller
edited a transcendentalist journal
Grimke sisters
Sisters who pushed for the abolition of slavery
Seneca Falls Women's Rights Convention (1848)
• It wrote a "Declaration of Sentiments" arguing that "all men and women were created equal"
• It demanded female suffrage
• Neither of these things happened anytime soon, but the women's rights movement was born
Robert Owen
started New Harmony, Indiana (1825) for intellectuals, failed due to infighting
Brook Farm
• Started in Massachusetts (1841)
• It attracted Transcendentalist intellectuals
Oneida Community
was communal and embraced free love, birth control, and selecting parents to have planned children in New York 1848
Mother Ann Lee
Established the Shakers who stressed simplicity in their lives and separated the sexes, dyed by 1940
Thomas Paine
"Age of Reason" influenced the creation of Deism, favored by Jefferson and Franklin
Nathaniel Bowditch
wrote on navigation
Matthew Maury
studied the ocean winds and currents
Benjamin Silliman
Yale chemist and geologist for 50+ years
Louis Agassiz
Harvard biologist who stressed original research over rote memorization
Asa Gray
Harvard botanist and was a pioneer of botany
John Audubon
early naturalist who painted birds with precise details
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
said that if all the medicines were thrown into the sea, the people would be better off and the fish worse
Gilbert Stuart
painted many portraits of George Washington
John Trumbull
painted scenes of the Revolutionary War
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Intellectual who favored Unitarian religion, most famous Transcendentalist, most famous writing Is Self Reliance stressing individualism
Peter Cartwright
One of the leading preachers in the 2nd Great Awakening, a Methodist who traveled to preach
Charles Grandison Finney
A leading preachier in the 2nd Great Awakening, noted form being a most gifted speaker/preacher that could move the masses. Massive revivals in NY and Rochester in 1830's
William Miller
Predicted Christ's return on October 22,1844 and main cause for the rise of the Millerites aka Adventists
Joseph Smith
1830- said to have been given the book of Mormon by an Angel, began the Mormon Church of Jesus Christ
Brigham Young
Took over the Mormons in 1846-47 and led them along the Mormon Trail to Utah
Noah Webster
helped standardize American language by publishing a dictionary
Thomas Jefferson
Started the university of Virginia- free of politics and religion in 1819, invented a new type of plow
Emma Willard
Established the Troy Female Seminary in 1821, female college in Ohio
Mary Lyon
Established Mount Holyoke Seminary in 1837, female college in Mass.
Dorothea Dix
Improved treatment for the mentally insane in 1843 by petitioning to the Mass. legislature
Neil S. Dow
"Father of Prohibition" Sponsored the Maine Law of 1851 which prohibited the sale or manufacturing of alcohol
Catherine Beecher
Urged women to take teaching jobs
Lucretia Mott, Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Pushed for women suffrage
Amelia Bloomer
Wore short skirts (bloomers)
Stephen Foster
Known for Suwanee River, America folk music by capturing lives of the slaves
Washington Irving
Wrote Knickerbockers History of New York1809 , Legend of Sleepy Hollow and Rip Van Winkle, settings was US
James Fennimore Copper
First blockbuster American fiction in Leatherstocking Tales, settings in wilderness NY
WIlliam Cullen Bryant
wrote poetry such as Thanatopisis 1817, set a model for journalism
Henry David Thoreau
Lived the Transcendentalist life, lived in the woods off of what he could make himself , wrote On the Duty of Civil Disobedience which emphasized peacefully not following unjust laws
Walt Whitman
wrote Leaves of Grass encouraging people to live their life to the fullest
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
popular poet of Evangeline based on American Traditions
John Greenleaf Whittier
Sought to influence social action and stood against slavery
James Russel Lowell
satirical poetry that criticized social wrongs
Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes
a noon conformist who wrote that Boston was the hub of the universe
Louisa May Alcott
Grew up in Transcendentalist Concord, Mass and wrote Little Women
Emily Dickinson
wrote love poems in Mass.
Edgar Allen Poe
invented psychological thrillers
Nathaniel Hawthorne
Explored the idea of original sin
Herman Melville
wrote Moby Dick, allegory of good vs evil
George Bancroft
Helped found the Naval Academy in Annapolis, MD, "Father of American History"
William H. Prescott
wrote history of the conquests of Mexico and Peru
Francis Parkman
wrote history of England and France trying to control North America