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Treaty of Ft. Laramie

forced Sioux onto a reservation on the Missouri River, but promised that Americans would stay off their land

Battle of Little Bighorn

On June 25, 1876, Col. George Custer attacked the Sioux near the Little Bighorn River in Montana
Sitting Bull had joined forces with Crazy Horse, another Sioux leader
Custer had 276 cavalrymen, but the Indians had about 4,000
Custer and all of his men were killed

Ghost Dance

Ritual performed by Sioux to protect them from bullets

Battle of Wounded Knee

The last battle between Native Americans and the U.S. Army.They used machine guns and cannons to kill over 300 Sioux

The Sioux, convinced they had been made invincible by magic,(Ghost Dance) were massacred by troops at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.

Homestead Act

160 free acres of land to any head of the household
provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years


Slaves that moved from the deep south to Kansas


a house built of sod or adobe laid in horizontal courses


the political doctrine that supports the rights and powers of the common people in their struggle with the privileged elite

Farmers Alliances

groups of farmers, or those in sympathy with farming issues, who sent lecturers from town to town to educate people about agricultural and rural issues

Populist Party

Populist (People's) Party created in 1892
Founded by James B. Weaver (Iowa) and Thomas Watson (Georgia)
Western wheat farmers, southern tenant
farmers, western silver miners, midwestern coal miners

Populist Party Platform

Increase in money supply
Graduated income tax
Direct election of U.S. senators
Single term for president and vice president
8 hour workday for government employees
Restriction on undesirable immigration

Election of 1892

Benjamin Harrison (incumbent)
Grover Cleveland (elected in 1884, lost to Harrison in 1888)
James B. Weaver
-Weaver gets 10% of popular vote and 22 electoral votes
-Cleveland wins, becoming the only president to serve 2 nonconsecutive terms

Panic of 1893

Caused by railroad overbuilding
Over 500 banks failed due to a run on gold
Over 15,000 businesses went bankrupt, including several major railroad companies
Nearly 20% unemployment


The use of both gold and silver as a basis for a national monetary system..could get silver or gold for currency or checks)

Election of 1896

Bitter fight over economic interests. Repub: support for gold standard and high tariffs. Demo: unlimted silve coinage. .McKinley defeated Bryan, causing collapse of the Populist Party

Bessemer process

A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.

transcontinental railroad

..., Railroad connecting the west and east coasts of the continental US

time zones

in order to stay on schedule and avoid wrecks, railroads standardized these in 1883

Social Darwinism

The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion

Sherman Antitrust Act

law that made it illegal to create monopolies or trusts that restrained free trade

American Federation of Labor

a union for skilled laborers that fought for worker rights in a non-violent way. It provided skilled laborers with a union that was unified, large, and strong.

Haymarket affair

incident that made unions, particularly the Knights of Labor, look violent because a bomb exploded during a protest of striking workers.

Pullman Strike

This was a nonviolent strike which brought about a shut down of western railroads, which took place against the Pullman Palace Car Company in Chicago in 1894, because of the poor wages of the Pullman workers. It was ended by the president due to the interference with the mail system, and brought a bad image upon unions.

Triangle Shirtwaist Fire

Disaster at a New York factory in 1911 when 146 workers were either burned or jumped to their deaths from the eight or ninth floor, most of them young women; Caused a lot of labor laws to be changed regarding safety

Ellis Island

Immigration processing center that open in New York Harbor in 1892
17 million immigrants between 1892 and 1924

Angel Island

San Francisco
50,000 Chinese immigrants
, Inspection station for immigrants arriving on the West Coast

Immigration Restriction League

A Nativist group who wanted to restrict immigration into the U.S. to certain groups they deemed desirable. Because of them congress passed a bill in 1897 requiring a literacy test for immigrants.

American Protective Association

An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration

Chinese Exclusion Act

Pased in 1882; banned Chinese immigration in US for a total of 40 years because the United States thought of them as a threat. Caused chinese population in America to decrease.

Gilded Age

-Characterized by greed and self-indulgence
-referring to the extravagant wealth of a few and the terrible poverty that lay underneath
-The term was coined by Mark Twain

political machine

Political machine: Organized group that controlled the activities of a political party in a city. Very corrupt, often rigging elections by
casting votes with imaginary people. Political machines also accepted bribes to allow illegal activities to flourish (police were hired by political machines until about 1890).


Graft: Illegal use of political influence for political gain.

Tammany Hall

most notorious political machine; Tweed was the third-largest landowner in New York City. He built his power in Tammany Hall through the appointment and election of his friends- known
as the "Tweed Ring". Tweed was convicted for stealing between $40 million and $200 million from New York City taxpayers through political corruption (based on the inflation rate of the dollar since 1870 of 2.7%, approximately 1.5 and 8 billion 2009 dollars). The "Tweed Ring" managed to steal the money by faking leases, padding bills with false changes and paying for unnecessary repairs and overpriced goods and services bought from suppliers controlled by the ring. Tammany Hall—NYC's Democratic machine.

spoils system (Patronage)

practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs....Started with Andrew Jackson

Pendleton Civil Service Act

an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.Candidates for government jobs would have to take an exam

Niagara Movement

insisted that blacks should seek a liberal arts education so that the African American community would have well-educated leaders


the separation or isolation of a race, class, or group

Jim Crow Laws

Laws enacted by southern state and local governments to separate white and black people in public and private facilities

racial etiquette

Strict rules for interaction between Black and White Americans

Plessy v. Ferguson

This decision said that separation of the races in public accommodations was legal thus establishing the separate but equal doctrine

Sitting Bull

Sioux chief who led the attack on Custer at the Battle of the Little Bighorn

Joseph Glidden

inventor of barbed wire

James Weaver

Populist Party nominee for pres. election of 1892.

Benjamin Harrison

23rd President; Republican, poor leader,

Jacob Coxey

Populist who led Coxey's Army in a march on Washington DC in 1894 to seek government jobs for the unemployed.

William Mckinley

25th president responsible for Spanish-American War, Philippine-American War, and the Annexation of Hawaii, imperialism. Is assassinated by an anarchist

Frank Baum

author of the Wizard of Oz

Thomas edison

Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations

Christopher Sholes

Invented the typewriter

George Pullman

developed the train sleeping car

John D. Rockefeller

Established the Standard Oil Company, the greatest, wisest, and meanest monopoly known in history

Eugene V. Debs

led the Pullman strike and founded the American Railway Union

William Tweed

political boss of New York who used corruption to cheat the city out of over 100 million; he was later arrested and died in jail

Charles Guiteau

assassinated James A. Garfield

Daniel Burnham

Chicago architect, designed the slender 285-foot tower in 1902, the Flatiron Building

Orville and Wilbur Wright

invented the airplane

William Torrey Harris

reformed schools in the 1870s; worked to increase the number of years children spent in school;

WEB Du Bois

African American leader who helped form the NAACP

John Pemberton

Pharmacist/inventor of Coca-Cola

William Randolph Hearst

United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism

George Custer

Who was the leader of the American army at Little big Horn

Oliver Hudson Kelley

founder of the farmers grange-an orginization made to help and educate farmers

Thomas Watson

helped Alexander Graham Bell invent the telephone, he was the hands and built it

Grover Cleveland

22nd and 24th President of the United States (1837-1908)

William Allen White

Editor of the Emporia Gazette that became the national spokesperson for smalltown America. Wrote the editorial "What's the matter with Kansas?"

William Jennings Bryan

Democratic candidate for president in 1896 under the banner of "free silver coinage" which won him support of the Populist Party.

Edwin Drake

drilled 1st oil well in the US, in PA in 1859

George Westinghouse

Made the air brake

Alexander Graham Bell

invented the telephone

Andrew Carnegie

Built a steel mill empire; US STEEL

Samuel Gompers

He was the creator of the American Federation of Labor. He provided a stable and unified union for skilled workers.

Mary Harris Jones

"Mother Jones"; organized unions for workers in mines

James Garfield

20th president, Republican, assassinated by Charles Julius Guiteau after a few months in office due to lack of patronage

Louis Sullivan

pioneered the new structure called the skyscrapper

Frederick Law Olmsted

Developer of Central Park

George Eastman

Inventor of the camera

Booker T Washington

African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.

Homer Plessy

African American arrested for sitting in the "white only" section on a railroad car

Joseph Pulitzer

owner of the New York World newspaper/ Leader in Yellow Journalism

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