52 terms

Psychology - Chapter 1

The Science of Psychology
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes
outward or overt actions and reactions, such as talking, facial expressions, and movement
mental processes
internal, covert activity of the mind, such as thinking, feeling and remembering
what is happening?
why is it happening?
a general explanation of a set of observations or facts
will it happen again?
how can it be changed?
objective introspection
the process of objectively examining and measuring one's own thoughts and mental activities
Wilhelm Wundt; Edward Titchener; studying the structure and elements of the mind [emotions and sensations]
William James; how our behavior allows us to function/adapt; no longer around; impossible to break down the mind
Gestalt psychology
focuses on perception and sensation, and perceptions of patterns and whole figures
therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious conflicts; theory of personality
John B. Watson; the science of behavior that focuses on observable behavior only
Psychodynamic perspective
modern version of psychoanalysis; behavior is a result of unconscious determinants and early experience
Behavioral perspective
behavior is a result of the environment; BF Skinner - operant conditioning, behavior is a result of reinforcement; Watson; Pavlov
Humanistic perspective
people have freewill, the freedom to choose their own destiny; Abraham Maslow; Carl Rogers
self actualization
achieving one's full potential or actual self
Biopsychological perspective
behavior is a result of biological events occuring in the body, such as genetic influences, hormones, and the activity of the nervous system
Cognitive perspective
focuses on memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning
Sociocultural perspective
focuses on social interactions and cultural determinants
Evolutionary perspective
focuses on the biological bases of universal mental characteristics that all humans share; looks at the way the mind works and why it does; behavior is seen as having an adaptive or survival value
M.D. who has specialized training in psychology
psychiatrist or pyschologist who had special training in psychoanalysis
psychiatric social worker
a social worker with some training in therapy methods who focuses on the environmental conditions
professional with an academic degree with no medical training
scientific method
system of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced
naturalistic observation
watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment
laboratory observation
watching animals or humans behave in a laboratory setting
case study
study of one individual in great detail
researchers will ask a series of questions about the topic under study
a measure of the relationship between two variables
correlation research
answers the question: are x and y related?
correlation coefficient
direction and strength of the relationship
a deliberate manipulation of a variable to see if corresponding changes in behavior result, allowing the determination of cause/effect relationships
independent variable
manipulated by the experimenter
dependent variable
the response of the participants that is measured
observer effect
animals or people who know they are being watched will not behave normally
participant observation
a naturalistic observation in which the observer becomes a participant in the group being observed
observer bias
tendency of observers to see what they expect to see
representative sample
randomly selected sample of subjects from a larger population of subjects
the entire group of people or animals in which the researcher is interested
operational definition
definition of a variable of interest that allows it to be directly measured
experimental group
subjects in an experiment who are subjected to the independent variable
control group
subjects in an experiment who are not subjected to the independent variable and who may recieve a placebo treatment
random assignment
assigning subjects to the experimental or control groups randomly
placebo effect
the phenomenon in which the expectations of the participants in a study can influence their behavior
experimenter effect
tendency of the experimenter's expectations for a study to unintentionally influence the results of the study
single-blind study
subjects do not know if they are in the experimental or control group
double-blind study
neither the experimenter nor the subjects knows if the subjects are in the experimental or control group
critical thinking
making reasoned judgements about claims
systems of explaining human behavior that are not based on or consistent with scientific evidence