Legislative Branch Power is vested in the Congress (pass laws)
Executive Branch Power is vested in the President (enforce laws)
Judicial Branch Power is vested in the Supreme Court (interpret laws)
What is the BOR?
First 10 amendments to the Constitution
Freedom of Speech, Press, Religion, right to Peaceful assembly, and to petition the Government for the readdress of grievances
-Freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures -warrants (judicial officer/magistrate) -probable cause -oath or affirmation
-a speedy and public trial -impartial jury -notice of charges -witnesses -counsel
-No cruel or unusual punishment -No excessive bail shall not be required
the scientific study of victims
the increased likelihood of an individual becoming a victim due to something they did that put them more at risk
often paid to victims of violent acts; provided by a crime that is provided by local, state, or federal government funds.
often ordered by the court to be paid to victims by the offender (s) as a part of their sentence
T/F April has been designed but the U.S DOJ as national anthem awareness month.
a philosophical perspective that recognizes that the state has both the right and the obligation to intervene on behalf of its citizens in the case of some impairment or impairment such as mental incompetence or in the case of juveniles, age & immaturity.
-Studies crimes -Criminals -Criminal behavior -Criminology is a multidiciplinary science
-1899 in cook county jail IL (1st Juvenile court) -Parens Patriate -Parent of the country -The primary objective of processing juveniles was to determine the best interest of the child.
Kent v U.S (1966)
-1st U.S Supreme Court case to address juvenile court proocedures -Juvenillr facing waiver adult court are entiled to essentiled due process rights.
In Re Gault (1967)
U.S Supreme Court ruled that Juveniles are entitled to the right to notice of charges, right to counsel, right to confront and cross-examine the witness, and right against self-incrimination.
In Re (1970)
-The standard of Proof in Juvenile delinquency proceedings is proof beyond a reasonable doubt
behaviors that are not normal; includes many illegal acts as well as activites not necessarily against the law, may be deemed immoral rather than illegal
What is an example of a deviant act that is not illegal?
cheating on your spouse, fighting
Mala in se
acts that are considered inherently evil
acts that are considered crimes primarily because that have been declared bad by legal codes in that jurisdiction
scientific study of crimes and the reasons why people engage (or don't engage) in criminal behavior
Who coined the term criminology?
Italian law professor Raffaele Garofalo
the study of crime across various cultures to identify similarities and differences in crime patterns
Theories that assume the virtually everyone is in agreement on the laws on the laws and therefore assume no conflict in attitudes regarding the laws and rules of society
often refers to as various CJ agencies and institutions that are interrelated.
What is the primary objective of the Juvenile Justice System?
determine what was in the best interest of the child
Is victimology relative in a new area of criminology?
What is a victim impact statement?
formal statements given by victims in court about the incident in which they were offended, often in person but also in other ways; these statements can be considered in determining the offender's sentence.
the authority to waive juvenile court jurisdiction and transfer the case to criminal court
T/F...there is one definition of crime?
False, there are many
UCR(Uniform crime report)
(Uniform Crim Reports) -annual report published by the FBI in the U.S. DOJ. it Is meant to estimate most of the major street crimes in the u.s
Part 1 offenses (index crimes)
murder, rape, robbery, assault
Part 2 offenses
burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft, and arson
NIBRS (National Incident-Based Reporting System)
an enhanced version of the UCR Program that collects more detailed information on incidents , it differs from the UCR by it expands the types of offenses reported etc.
Hate Crimes Act 1990
crime offenses occurred such as vandalism and murder that have addition factor of bias.
Law Enforcement Officers Killed and Assaulted is pare of the UCR Program, it collects data on officer-line-of-duty deaths and assaults.
this type of death occurs when the officer nis on or off duty and acting in an official capacity while reacting to a situation that would ordinarily fall within the scope of his or her official duties as official law enforcement officer.
National Crime Victimization Survey, a primary measure of crime in the U.S. It s collected by the DOJ and the census of the bureau and is based on interviews of victims of crime.
How old do you have to be to be able to be in the NCVS?
12 years of age or older
Self report study
monitoring the future, an annual study that collects info to measure substance and alcohol patterns among youths
Supplementary Homicide Reports
Part of the UCR Program. These data provide more detailed information on the incident (e.g., the offender, the victim)