Terms in this set (40)
Characteristics of the 20th Century music
Time of change & diverse, end of common practice period, impact of media, folk music, jazz, non-western music, rhythm-irregular, asymmetrical, unpredictable, changing meters, melody-lots of leaps
combination of 2 chords sounded @ the same time, used in 20th century music
Chords made up of tones only a half step or a whole step apart, used in 20th century music.
Use of two or more contrasting and independent rhythms at the same time, often found in twentieth-century music
Absence of tonality, or key, characteristic of much twentieth-century music.
Musical style which stresses tone color, atmosphere, & fluidity, typical of Debussy
This composer was French-born and who created many new elements and formats of music. His music featured different approaches to the tonality and structure of music. He was a leading composer of impressionistic music. composed orchestral music, operas, chamber music, piano, influenced by wagers instrumental colors, Asian music, symbolist writers. master at evoking mood & atmosphere.
A five note scale (familiar from folk music & far east)
scale made up of 6 different tones, each a whole step away from the next, which convey no definite senses of tonality often found in the music of Debussy & his followers
Musical style marked by emotional restraint, balance, and clarity, inspired by the forms and stylistic features of eighteenth-century music, found in many works from 1920 to 1950
Russian composer whose use of non-traditional harmonies and dissonant sounds revolutionized modern music. Two important works are Rite of Spring and Firebird and Petrushka (ballets)
The rite of spring
This Modern musical ballad (composed by Sergei Diaghilev) caused spontaneous riots with its pulsating rhythms, and sharp dissonances
Evocation of primitive power through insistent rhythms and percussive sounds (clear, dry,no bridge passages, abrupt changes)
Twentieth-century modernist art that is the result of the artist's unique inner or personal vision and that often has an emotional dimension. Depicted inward motion rather than outward appearance (Germany & Austria)
Paris International Exhibition of 1889
Beginning of the French revolution, main purpose was the Eiffel tower. At the Exposition, the French composer Claude Debussy first heard Javanese gamelan music, performed by an ensemble from Java
1874-1951; Austrian, moved back and forth between Austria and Germany, later moved to France and eventually the United States; wrote dramatic works, orchestral music, piano music, chamber music and music theory writings., The creator of the twelve-tone system of atonal music.
a style of dramatic vocalization between singing and speaking. Developed by Schoenberg, Half speaking half singing
Twelve tone system
A system of composition which uses the twelve tones of the chromatic scale in an arbitrary arrangement called a tone row or series. The row may be used in its original form, its inversion, in retrograde, and in the inversion of the retrograde. The system was devised by Arnold Schoenberg in the early 20th century.
Method of composition in which various musical elements (pitch, rhythm, dynamics, tone color) may be ordered in a fixed series., A method for writing music that is not in a key, in which all notes are equally important.
Austrian composer in Schoenberg's twelve-tone music system (1885-1935), student of schoenberg, founder of sprechstimme.lyrical warmth, vivid tone colors & the atrial qualities of berg compositions
His composer was a Hungarian who was one of the leading composers of the early 20th Century. His compositions focused on the folk music of his country and the eastern European region., the greatest hungarian composer of his time, ethomusiologist, influenced my nationalist movement, revamped, revitalized traditional forms. Great use of percussion.
1st leading composer of the soviet union. Favor returned in 1937 after 5th symphony, fell in disfavor; accused of following the cult of dissonance, atonality, and discord representing soviet union at world peace
First American with international credibility, Use polytonality, tone clusters, quarter tones, and polyrhythms. successful insurance agent, revival of hums and ragtime.Over 200 songs
United States composer who incorporated jazz into classical forms and composed scores for musical comedies
rhapsody in blue
A concerto for piano and orchestra from the early 1920s by George Gershwin; one of the first pieces of "serious" music to contain elements of jazz.
a flowering of African American culture in the 1920s; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American.
william grant still
African-American; first to have work performed by major orchestra; incorporates blues, spirituals, jazz; Afro-American Symphony
afro american symphony
premiered in 19321; 1st composition by a black composer to be performed by a major american symphony orchestra
American; known for distinctly American sound (jazz, hymns, cowboy songs, folk tunes); clear tonality; Appalachian Spring; highly dissonant works
A ballet by Aaron Copeland and danced by Martha Graham. About a simple farm marriage. Showed a very American side. During modernist era but not "modern", bright, transparent, clear tonality, tender, calm in mood.
pitches ect. are not specified by the composer but are left to chance., music where the performers are given some control over the piece's construction , Music composed by the random selection of pitches, tone colors, and rhythms; developed in the 1950's by John Cage and others.
dependent on chance
contemporary musical style featuring the repetition of short melodic, rhythmic, and harmonic patterns with little variation. steady pulse, clear key, creating a trance-like; hypnotic effect, dev. in the 1960's
American composer. Studied with Henry Cowell and Arnold Schoenberg. Highly influential in chance music and percussion music (PREPARED PIANO)
A piano with items stuck between the strings to modify their timbre., John Cage stuffed pianos with objects in order to make new sounds
melodic intervals smaller than a half-step, used expressively in jazz as part of blues notes.
Minimalism, composer of symphonies, concertos, operas, film scores; brought minimalism to popular culture; Einstein on the Beach, 1976, collaboration with visionary theater director Robert Wilson. "Classical" & rock music. steady, driving pulse, clear tonality.
Einstein on the beach
avant guarde opera, no plot or character development
Home of important jazz musicians, diverse cultures, jazz style in which the front line of melodic instruments, improvise several contrasting melodic lines @ once, supported by a rhythm section that clearly marks up the beat and provides a background or chords usually on a march or church melody ragtime piece, popular music
United States jazz composer and piano player and bandleader (1899-1974), Famous jazz piano player and band leader. Played in Harlem's clubs with his band until his death.