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...adjustment, as the accommodation of the lens of the eye.

aqueous humor

...liquid that flows through the anterior and posterior eye chambers in the space between the cornea and the lens.


...condition in which the eye cannot bring horizontal and vertical lines into focus at the same time, causing blurry vision, as a result of irregularities in the curvature of the cornea and lens.


...flap of cartilage and skin that comprises the outer ear; external ear, pinna. A portion of the atrium of the heart. (Sometimes used to refer to entire atrium.)


...snail-shaped organ of the inner ear; the essential organ of hearing.


...specialized neurons concentrated in the retina's center that receive color, add visual acuity, and require a significant amount of light to function.


...transparent mucous membrane covering the anterior eye (front).


...the transparent front covering of the eye, as in corneal transplant

eustachian tube

...the passage from the throat to the middle ear; auditory tube.


...sense of taste


...condition in which light rays focus behind the retina; farsightedness. The eyeball is too short and one cannot see objects clearly.


...the "anvil," one of three tiny bones within the middle ear which are set in motion by sound waves.


...pigmented section over the front of the eyeball that gives the eye its color.


...the inner ear, including the vestibule, cochlea, and semicircular canals.

lacrimal gland

...pertaining to tears, as the lacrimal glands of the eyes.


...a transparent, crystalline eye structure that converges or scatters light rays before they focus as images on the retina.


the "hammer," one of three tiny bones within the middle ear which are set in motion by sound waves

membranous labyrinth

...set of tunnels and chambers in the inner ear.


...nearsightedness; light rays focus in front of the retina.


...sense of smell


...medical specialty related to the study of the eye and vision

optic disk

...eye region that is not light sensitive


...ball-shaped cavity in the skull that contains the eye.

organ of Corti

...small but intricate organ in the inner ear where the transmission of nerve stimuli begins


...collectively, the three tiny bones in the middle ear (the malleus, incus, and the stapes) which are set in motion by sound waves.

otology of the anatomy and physiology of the ear and related disorders


...external ear; auricle. Gathers and guides sound waves


...hearing loss that occurs with aging


...farsightedness that occurs with aging




...drooping or sagging of an organ or part from its normal position (usually refers to eyelid)

pupil center of the eye that regulates the amount of light that enters it


...the innermost tunic of the eyeball that contains rods and cones and is the origin of the optic nerve. Light rays focus at the retina in normal vision.


...specialized neurons dispersed throughout the retina, suited to dim light and especially useful in night vision


...outer coating of the eyeball

semicircular canal

...section of the inner ear that contains hairlike nerve endings that respond to movement and control the sense of balanc


...the "stirrup," one of three tiny bones within the middle ear which are set in motion by sound waves


...ringing in the ears.

tympanic membrane



sensation of rotation or movement of self (subjective vertigo) or surroundings (objective vertigo). (Not all dizziness is true vertigo.)

vitreous humor

a transparent, gelatin-like material that fills the space behind the lens of the eye


nerve carries sensations of eye pain and temperature to the brain.


receptors are located in the areas such as the fingertips and around the lips, constantly receiving nerve impulses with regard to pain and pleasure.


pain located in an internal organ system.

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