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Parent Education: Test #1
Terms in this set (116)
What is family according to the US Census Bureau?
a group of 2 or more persons related by birth, marriage, or adoption, residing together in a household.
What is family according to the book?
Social group that lasts over time - lifetime membership
What is Socialization?
learning how to conform to the conventional ways of behavior in society
What are committed partners?
married or cohabiting (heterosexual or homosexual) without children
What is family ecology?
emphasizes the dual influence between families and society
What are developmental interactions?
both parties change (and grow) through the stages of development
What is a nuclear family?
man, woman, & children
Usually referring to two-parent biological family
What is a contemporary family?
Any combination of other family
What is an extended family?
What is a renested family?
children who have been out on their own return home
What are stepfamilies?
typically through remarriage - but not always
In ancient history, what age was considered adulthood?
In the middle ages, what were families like?
No close relationships due to fear of death
Adult responsibilities at a very early age
Dangers- child mortality, accidents, etc.
Who published The Care and Feeding of Children in 1894, which became the leading book on child care?
Luther Emmett Holt
What outlandish things did Holt propose?
Not to kiss children for fear of spreading disease and nervousness in kids; tying arms to the bed to prevent thumb sucking
Who wrote The Common Sense Book of Baby and Child Care that corrected some of Holt's ideas?
Dr. Benjamin Spock
Who was the "father of behaviorism" for advocating the study of bhr and supported an extreme environmentalism perspecive in his writings about parents?
Who was the first person to get a PhD in psych, one of the fathers of american psychology, and established the first working psych lab, and established a program of research on kids, parents, and adolescents?
G. Stanley Hall
Who promoted the idea that children are, by nature, sinful and parents had an important role in correcting this problem?
Who's child-rearing advice consisted mostly of harsh punishment and said that parents must educate and discipline?
Who wrote Some Thoughts Concerning Education and advocated a "blank-slate" position and said that children were NOT innately sinful?
Who also rejected original sin and believed that society corrupts children's innocence, and wrote the book Emilie?
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Frenchman)
What is individuation?
The process of becoming an autonomous individual
Systematic research into child rearing began when?
During the 1920's.
Who conducted the first parenting study (questionnaire)?
G. Stanley Hall
In _____, Child Development, the leading journal in the field of development psych began publication.
What is the largest study investigating questions about child development and what does it say?
National Children's Study
To determine to roles of genetic, environmental, cultural, familial, social, and geographic influences on development
Parenting: Science and Practice was established in ____ and is devoted solely to ________.
2001; parenting studies
According to Freud, what is the stage theory?
a theory of development that hypothesizes the existence of distinct periods of like that follow each other in an orderly sequence
What are the two tendencies in which human bhr and development are motivated?
Urge to survive
Urge to procreate
What are the 3 elements of personality according to Freud?
ID: physiological drives/instincts
EGO: self-awareness and capacity for planning and delay of gratification
SUPEREGO: moral guardian/conscience
What is the Oral stage?
1st year of life
Gratification through oral activities like sucking, biting, swallowing, playing with lips
Preoccupation with immediate gratification of impulses
Id is dominant
What is the Anal stage?
2nd year of life (18 months- 2/3 years)
Gratification through anal activities like elimination, urination, and retaining feces
Id and ego working together
What is the Phallic stage?
2nd/3rd through 5th or 6th year of life
Concerned with genitals
Gratification through genital activities like masturbation
Oedipal and Electra complexes
Id and ego working together; superego opposes id and ego
What is the latency stage?
5th or 6th year of life to 11 years
Repression of sexual impulses
Loss of interest in sexual gratification
Identification with like-sexed parent
Id, ego, and superego
What is the genital stage?
11 years through adulthood
Concern with adult modes of sexual pleasure, barring fixations or regressions
Gratification through sexual activity with opposite sex partner
Superego progressively more flexible with increasing maturity
Who came up with the idea of Individual psychology?
Adler stated that we all strive towards ___________.
___________________ can result in becoming who we want to be. (Adler)
Visualizing and believing in our selves
What can the fear of failure lead to?
Trouble in School
A criminal lifestyle
What are the 4 types of life styles according to Adler's fear of failure and social interests?
Ruling - active, no social interest
Getting - less activity, not much social interest
Avoiding - less activity, not much social interest
Socially Useful - cooperation and contribution
Why is Individual psychology a good theory?
It can be applied to everyone
It is optimistic
It is easy to understand
What are the criticisms against the thoery of individual psych?
The desire to 'be perfect, without flaw' can lead to socially useless activities, discouragement, and retreat into fantasy. The striving for godlike supremacy can lead to psychosis
Who came up with the Social-Cognitive theory, and what is it?
Learning that occurs through the observation of others (modeling and observational learning); Combines elements of both behaviorism and cognitivism
What is the modeling effect and name an example.
Learning of a novel behavior through imitation
What is the inhibitory effect according to Bandura?
Suppression of deviant behavior
What is the disinhibitory effect according to Bandura?
Appearance of previously suppressed deviant behavior
What is the eliciting effect?
Occurs when the model's behavior leads to related behavior in the learner that is not identical to that of the model's, but neither is it deviant nor novel
What is Bandura's theory on self-efficacy?
Our estimates of our effectiveness in dealing with the world and with others
Who originally came up with attachment theory and what is it?
Understanding how love between a parent and child affects development
What are Social Learning/Social Cognitive Learning theories?
A collection of theories that address how children learn from their social environment
What are the two learning principles of social learning/social cognitive learning theories?
Parental influence occurs through the dispensing of contingencies and through modeling
Parental bhr is determined through a parent's own prior social learning experiences
According to Attachment theory, infants who are securely attached at 12 months of age will develop a...
...positive working model of themselves and others
People who have a positive view of self and others are considered to have a ______ attachment style.
People who have a negative view of self and a postitve view of others are considered to have a ________ attachment style.
Individuals whose view of others is negative, but view of self is positive, would be classified as having a ________ attachment style.
Negative views of both the self and others define a _______ attachment style. They do not think they are worthy of love nor are there people worth loving.
Persons who hold _______ representations of attachment with their parents are comfortable with intimacy as well as being autonomous. They value their attachment experiences and are able to provide an objective and balanced description of their childhood.
________ individuals experience relationship problems. They provide confused or incoherent accounts of their childhood attachment relationships. They may express anger or passivity in recalling their childhood.
People characterized as ______ provide autobiographical accounts that devalue their attachment relationships and may have difficulty in recalling them. They may idolize, derogate, or even may be unable to recall their early experiences.
________ individuals are likely to report negative or traumatic childhood experiences.
What are the three parenting styles ACCORDING TO BAUMRIND?
What are the current five parenting styles?
Explain the Authoritative parenting style.
(Democratic) (L&L: Consultant)
Explain the Authoritarian parenting style.
(L&L: Drill Sergeant)
Explain the Permissive parenting style.
Explain the Indulgent parenting style.
(same as permissive - HOWEVER, parental attitude and behavior is different)
Explain the Indifferent parenting style.
Child rearing is a _________, __________ endeavor.
What are the three ways parents guide their children's development?
Modifying the speed of trajectories
What does it mean to establish trajectories?
Determining the direction that the children's development will take
What does it mean to mediating trajectories?
Exerting a powerful influence on how children perceive
What does it mean to modify the speed of children's trajectories?
Modify the speed at which children have experiences that may promote their development
Is establishing trajectories a conscious decision?
The most obvious way that parents establish and promote trajectories is...
...in the decisions they make that affect their children's lives
What is parental inoculation?
Pre-arming helps to prepare children for adverse situations and feelings
Who theorized that parental occupation and general life situations lead parents to hold particular child-parental values?
What is Kohn's diagram of how SES leads to parenting bhr?
SES-->Values-->Child-rearing values-->Parenting bhr
What characteristics make a better parent?
Capacity for positive and mutually satisfying relationships
Capable for flexible problem solving
Cognitive readiness for parenthood
Challenges of New Parent:
Loss of sleep
Feeling inadequate in new role
Difficulty in keeping up with baby, home, other relationships, (and possibly job)
Feeling tied down
Parenting Styles are measured by:
Demandingness (Control and Expectation)
What are the three temperament styles?
The Easy or Flexible Child (40%)
The Difficult or Feisty Child (10%)
The Slow-to-Warm-Up or Fearful Child (15%)
Explain the characteristics of the easy or flexible child.
Predominantly positive mood
Low or medium intensity
Explain the characteristics of the Difficult or Feisty Child.
Often has unpleasant or disagreeable mood
More likely to throw temper tantrums
Explain the characteristics of the Slow-to-Warm-Up or Fearful Child.
Clingy to parental figure, shy
Can warm up to group if on his or her own terms
What are the three goals of misbehavior?
What do children need according to Kagan, Brofenbrenner, etc?
To feel valued by parents and a few special adults, for example, a teacher or a relative
To develop their own autonomous in their behavior
To develop and master skills and abilities that are valued by society
To accept their sexual orientation and feel successful in terms of loving others and being able to accept love from others
What are the primary parenting functions?
Structure and Nurturance
How does a parent give structure to their child?
Scheduling vs. Demand
How does a parent give nurturance to their child?
Assertive care--parents make decision
Supportive care--child makes decision with guidance
What are the three axioms of parenting that Bigner came up with?
Parenthood is a social institution
Parental behavior is a product of past socialization, internalization, and exposure to media
Parenthood is a human construction
Sociologists today believe that the socialization of children is the...
...principal mission and goal of parenting. (Bigner)
What does discipline mean?
What are the 6 aspects of discipline?
Teaching appropriate behavior
Teaches control and how to make choices
Should be positive and reasonable
Should fit age and development level
Fit child's needs and problems
Why do children misbehave?
Ill or becoming ill
May lack knowledge and experience
Feel unloved, discouraged, or rejected
Feel inadequate or incapable
May have forgotten rule
Parental bhr is guided by:
Trial and error learning
Knowledge of Milestones/Child Development
What influences parenting?
How we were parented (or what/how we remember)
Previous interactions with other children
Previous interactions with our own children
Rules provide children with a sense of ________ and foster a sense of ______ and _________ as long as they are rational and allow the children to have personal boundaries.
Protection; trust and security
What are the 7 types of bad parenting?
What is a demanding parent?
Conducts child-rearing using authoritarian mandates; Children are treated as helpless
What is a critical parent?
Confines a large part of his or her interactions with children to criticism and being judgmental; Imposing an attitude of perfectionism
What is an over-functioning parent?
Review; Sends consistent messages to children that they are inept and children do not learn to think or reason for themselves
What is a disengaged parent?
Review; Not emotionally involved with children or with his or her work as a parent. Usually damages child's self-concept or self-worth
What is an abusive parent?
Harms children physically, emotionally, and/or sexually
What is an ineffective parent?
Incapable of meeting the needs of children
Child's needs are abandoned
Children assumes role they are not qualified for ; Parentification
What is a passive parent?
Feels that they will be interfering with child's development so does not provide enough instruction
Where do good parents go bad?
Don't know what to do
Did something wrong
Never had good examples
Can't read emotions in child(ren)
What are the 3 levels of Kohlberg's moral development?
Postconventional, Principled, or Autonomous
What does the Preconventional levels entail?
The pre-moral level: a person follows society's rules of right and wrong but interms of the physical or hedonistic consequences and in view of the power of the authority who imposes the rules
-Punishment/Obedience--whether punishment or reward comes
-Naive instrument orientation--Instrumentally satisfies needs and sometimes needs of others; fair return
What does the Conventional level entail?
A person conforms to the expectations of her family, group, or nation. SHe actively supports and justifies the existing social order
-Good-boy/Nice-girl--Acts in ways that pleases others
-Law-and-order--doing the right thing when doing his duty
What does the Postconventional, Principled, or Autonomous level entail?
A person tried to identify universal moral values that are valid, regardless or what authority or group subscribes to the values and despite the indivudal's own connection or lack of connection with such authorities or groups
-Social-contract--moral bhr is in terms of general rights
-Universal ethical principle--based on universal principles of justice, equality of human rights and on respect for the dignity of human as people
Child rearing is influences by several types of cultural or distal variables such as:
Child rearing is influences by several types of contextual determinants such as:
What are the four central characteristics related to child rearing?
Social cognitions (Attitudes and beliefs)
What are the stable child characteristics?
What are the stable family characteristics?
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