Social Studies 8th Staar (set 2)
Terms in this set (85)
the House of Burgesses
the first elected legislative
assembly in the New World,
established in Virginia in 1619
people who agreed to work
for a certain number of years
to make up for the cost to
travel from Europe to America
first Europeans to reach the
Americas, dating back to the
religious group that settled in
Pennsylvania in order to
practice their religion freely
group who sailed to the
Americas on the Mayflower
to escape religious
institution that replaced
indentured servitude in the
main economic activity in the
reason why the first English
colony of Jamestown was
European enemy of the
French during the French
and Indian War
first Europeans to settle
along the St. Lawrence River
and trade furs with Native
•The Mayflower compact
was the first governing document of Plymouth colony, drafted by the Pilgrims in 1620. It proclaimed the settlers' allegiance (loyalty) to the king. It established law and government in the new colony.
English Bill of Rights
was written in 1689 and included the protection against cruel and unusual punishment.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
was written in 1639.
•It was a plan for the government of the colony of Connecticut.
•It included voting rights, who could be elected, and how leaders could be elected.
Massachusetts Body of Liberties of 1641
listed many rights that were granted to the people living in the colony of Massachusetts.
•It was similar to the Bill of Rights that was added to the U.S. Constitution.
•It provided limited religious freedom and equal protection of the laws for landowners.
•It banned punishments that were thought to be "inhumane, Barbarous or cruel."
Maryland Toleration Act
passed in 1649. It granted religious freedom to Christians living in Maryland
is an English charter listing rights and privileges. It was signed in 1215. The document had an impact on the U.S. Bill of Rights, which borrowed several of its concepts, including the right to a fair and speedy trial.
In 1630, who had been chosen to govern the Massachusetts Bay Colony, led a group of about 700 Puritans from England to Massachusetts. They founded Boston and other nearby towns. He described to the others that their new colony would be "a city upon a hill" and that "the eyes of all people are on us."
was a Puritan minister who arrived in Massachusetts in 1631. He wanted the church and state to be separate, and he thought people should be free to practice religion as they chose. His disagreements with the leaders of Massachusetts led them to kick him out of the colony in 1635. He fled to what is now Rhode Island where he started the settlement called Providence.
Connecticut was established by him who disagreed with Massachusetts Governor John Winthrop about political rights. Winthrop believed that only members of the Puritan church should be allowed to be a part of government, but He believed that any male landowner should be allowed to. He left Massachusetts and founded the Connecticut colony.
Age of Enlightenment
period in which reason was advocated as the primary basis of thought and authority.
was an important political philosopher of the Enlightenment. He believed that a government was legitimate only if the people it ruled consented to its authority. He also believed the government should protect the natural rights of citizens and that all individuals should be equal under the law. This principle was seen later in the Declaration of Independence.
was a French political thinker known for his ideas regarding the government's separation of powers. In his work entitled The Spirit of the Laws, He argued against one large government structure controlling every aspect of law and instead proposed the idea of separate branches.
was a Swiss philosopher, writer, and Enlightenment thinker. Much of his philosophy influenced the French Revolution. During this Age of Enlightenment, great thinkers saw how humans were able to establish a new sense of logic and reason. He argued that every person was capable of such thinking and therefore could choose his or her own destiny. This idea is expressed in his famous work Reveries of a Solitary Walker.
born Francois-Marie Arouet, was a French writer. Along with his Enlightenment counter-parts, He believed in each individual's civil liberties, including free speech and freedom of religion.
First Lady who spent the
winter with the soldiers at
Valley Forge and helped to
raise their morale
woman who dressed as a
man in order to join the
Native American who served
as an officer in the British
army during the American
European country that
assisted the Americans at
the Battle of Yorktown
general who led the
Americans to victory at the
Battle of Saratoga
first battle of the American
slave who wrote poems and
plays in support of American
slave who worked as a spy
for the Continental Army
Declaration of Independence
document written in 1776
that included colonists'
grievances against the king
main author of the
Declaration of Independence
Treaty of Paris of 1763
The French and Indian War ended when the two countries signed this. In this treaty, France gave up all of Canada and all of its territory east of the Mississippi River to Great Britain. In addition, Great Britain also received Florida from the Spanish as punishment for Spain's help to the French during the war. Following the treaty, France's presence in North America was greatly diminished, and the country was left with only its holdings on a few Caribbean islands.
The Proclamation of 1763
was meant to appease the Native Americans living in the area. It prohibited American colonists from moving west of the Appalachian Mountains and heavily restricted trade there. These restrictions angered many colonists.
Sugar Act of 1764
placed a tax on sugar, wine, and coffee
Currency Act of 1764
prohibited the colonists from printing their own money
Stamp Act of 1765
required the colonists to use specially stamped paper for all official documents, newspapers, and pamphlets. Following the colonial objection of the Stamp Act, England repealed the tax in 1766.
placed new taxes on lead, glass, tea, paint, and paper imported by the colonies from Great Britain. Unlike the Stamp Act, which had been a direct tax paid when buying an item, the Townshend Acts were considered external taxes that were instead paid by merchants.
In 1770, a group of civilians started a riot outside of the Old State House. Soldiers stationed at the building fired into the crowd and killed five people.
Boston Tea Party
In 1773, Parliament passed the Tea Act, allowing the floundering British East India Company to sell tea directly to the colonies without paying taxes.
The Intolerable Acts
the British Parliament passed a series of laws, which the colonists referred to
The Intolerable Acts where:
The Boston Port Act was the first law passed, and it closed the Boston port until the colonists paid for all of the tea that they had destroyed. The Massachusetts Government Act revoked the colony's charter, and the British government took more control over the Massachusetts legislature. The Administration of Justice Act allowed British officials accused of a crime to have a trial in a colony besides Massachusetts, or even in Great Britain. The Quartering Act required colonists to provide housing for British soldiers.
The Committees of Correspondence
were formed as a way to increase communication among the colonies.
is a pamphet In 1776, Thomas Paine anonymously published which called for American independence from Great Britain.
Daughters of Liberty
Many women supported the Revolution, partially because they hoped that they would gain more right under a new government
The First Continental Congress
In September 1774, a convention of delegates from twelve of the colonies met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Paul Revere's Ride
was a member of the Sons of Liberty and was involved in the Boston Tea Party. best known for riding on his horse all night to tell the people in the Massachusetts countryside that the British soldiers were coming
Lexington and Concord
The first battle of the Revolutionary War on April 19, 1775.
Battle of Bunker Hill
took place on June 17, 1775, at Charlestown, Massachusetts, near Boston.
George Washington Crosses the Delaware
On December 25, 1776,led 2,400 troops across the Delaware River into New Jersey. He led a surprise attack in Trenton, New Jersey. He fought against the Hessians, German soldiers fighting for the British.
Battle of Saratoga
fought in October 1777 in New York. The American colonists, led by Benedict Arnold, had a major victory at this battle.
The American troops spent the winter at this place from December 1777 until June 1778
Battle of Yorktown
Taking place in the fall of 1781, was the last major battle of the Revolutionary War. With assistance from nearly 8,000 French troops led by the Marquis de Lafayette, George Washington was able to defeat the British. British General Cornwallis surrendered to Washington after this battle.
Treaty of Paris
of 1783 officially ended the American Revolution.
was in charge of the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
was a printer, scientist, writer, and diplomat. He invented bi-focal glasses and the lightning rod. He wrote Poor Richard's Almanac. Franklin was also an American political leader.
He had great literary talent, which included his drafting of the Declaration of Independence.
was member of House of Burgesses in Virginia. He was a strong supporter of colonial independence. He is known for giving a speech on March 23, 1775, in which he said, "Give me liberty or give me death!"
was a lawyer who defended the soldiers who had been involved in the Boston Massacre. He was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence.
was a politician in colonial Boston, who wanted American independence. He is most famous for founding the Sons of Liberty and organizing the Boston Tea Party
was the writer who published Common Sense. In his writing, he said the colonists should fight to be free of British rule. This idea is known as independence.
Marquis de Lafayette
was a French general. He left France to help the colonists during the American Revolution. He led soldiers alongside George Washington, and he played a large part in the Battle of Yorktown
was the King of England when the colonies were still under British rule. The Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, and the Intolerable Acts were all passed while he was king. George did not want to lose the American colonies. After the British lost the American Revolutionary War, George III recognized American independence.
was the wife of John Adams. She was known for supporting equal rights for women and wanted to end slavery.
was the first published African American poet
Mercy Otis Warren
wrote plays and poems for the independence movement before the American Revolution.
was a Native American who served as an officer in the British army during the American Revolution.
Mary Ludwig Hays McCauley
is better known by her nickname "Molly Pitcher."She was known for the help she gave soldiers in the Revolutionary War.
was an African American who was killed during the Boston Massacre.
was a spy for the Continental Army during the American Revolution.
led by Alexander Hamilton. Federalists supported a strong central government and believed in a broad interpretation of the Constitution through the elastic clause
led by Thomas Jefferson. Supporting the needs and aspirations of yeoman farmers, Democratic Republicans supported farmers rather than merchants.
Shays' Rebellion, 1786
Daniel Shays, a veteran of the Continental Army, led a rebellion of poor farmers in Massachusetts who demanded debt relief, lower taxes, and protections against property seizures.
Judiciary Act of 1789
This act set up the national court system, which is made up of circuit courts, district courts, and the Supreme Court, according to the Constitution.
President Washington's Proclamation of Neutrality, 1793
Whiskey Rebellion, 1794
In 1791, Congress passed a tax on whiskey made in the United States. The federal government sent militia to Pennsylvania to stop the riots.
President Washington's Farewell Address, 1796
retired from the presidency in 1797, he wrote a letter to the American people detailing how he believed the country should run.
Creation of the Navy Department, 1797
The French demanded that Adams apologize and that the U.S. pay a bribe of $250,000. This event, known as the XYZ Affair, angered the American government. As a result, the United States began to increase its defense spending, creating the Navy Department and building up the army
Alien and Sedition Acts, 1798
In 1798, Congress passed four laws known as the Alien and Sedition Acts, which were directed at the Democratic-Republican party and its supporters.
Election of 1800
the president was elected by having the most electoral votes, and the person with the second-most votes became vice president.
Marbury v. Madison, 1803
The case, Marbury v. Madison, made it to the Supreme Court in 1803. There, Chief Justice John Marshall stated the opinion that the Court did not have the power to make Madison give Marbury his papers. The Court ruled that the part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that granted the Court the power to do so was unconstitutional. It was the first time the Supreme Court declared an act of Congress unconstitutional.
Louisiana Purchase, 1803
In 1803, the United States acquired the Louisiana Territory from France. This territorial acquisition more than doubled the size of the U.S.
Embargo Act, 1807
which prohibited American exports to all foreign ports. The U.S. hoped this act would keep them out of the war between Great Britain and France. The act hurt American businesses and was lifted in favor of the Non-Intercourse Act, which allowed American exports to all countries except Great Britain and France.