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31 terms

Chapter 2 Key Terms

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Anthropocentricism
The belief that humans are the "masters" of the world with a unique set of rights and values
Biocentricism
The belief that all creatures have their own rights and values
Blind Experiments
When those carrying out the experiment don't know which was the control and which was the experimental group until after carrying out the experiment
Controlled Studies
When comparisons are made between experimental and control groups that are identical in every way except the one variable being studied
Deductive Reasoning
Deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles
Double-Blind Design
When neither the one performing the experiment nor the subjects know which is the test variable and which is the control
Ecofeminism
A relationship-oriented philosophy that suggests that humans can reconcieve themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways
Environmental ethics
A search for moral values and ethics in human relations with the natural world
Environmental Racism
Decisions that restrict certain groups of people from polluted or degraded environments
Hypothesis
A provisional explanation that can be tested experimentally.
Inductive Reasoning
Inferring general principles from collected observations
Inherent Value
Belief that we deserve moral consideration no matter what we do because we are human
Instrumental Value
When something is valued because it is valued by someone or something that is valued.
LULUs
Locally Unwanted Land Uses such as airports, dumps, freeways, or other sources of degradation
Moral Agents
Being capable of acting morally or immorally and can accept their responsibilities
Moral Extensionism
Whom humans consider ethically significant
Moral Subjects
Beings that have moral interests of their own and can be treated rightly or wrongly by others
Morals
Ethical principles that guide our actions and relationships
Nihilists
Those who believe that the world has no meaning or purpose other then a unceasing struggle for power and existence
Paradigms
A model that provides a framework for interpreting observations
Parsimony
Choosing the simpler explanation if two appear
Relativists
Those who believe that moral principles are always important in any situation
Reproducibility
Making the same observations or getting the same results more then once
Science
Process for producing knowledge that depends on observations and theories
Scientific Theory
Explanation supported by tests and accepted as true
Significant Numbers
Meaningful numbers that can be verified
Stewardship
Responsibility to care for or manage a particular place
Toxic Colonialism
Sending toxic waste to poorer countries
Universalists
Believe that major principles of ethics are universal and unchanging
Utilitarians
Those who believe that you should live to produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people, for the greatest time
Values
Your ethical beliefs or morals that determine our sense from right or wrong