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The belief that humans are the "masters" of the world with a unique set of rights and values


The belief that all creatures have their own rights and values

Blind Experiments

When those carrying out the experiment don't know which was the control and which was the experimental group until after carrying out the experiment

Controlled Studies

When comparisons are made between experimental and control groups that are identical in every way except the one variable being studied

Deductive Reasoning

Deriving testable predictions about specific cases from general principles

Double-Blind Design

When neither the one performing the experiment nor the subjects know which is the test variable and which is the control


A relationship-oriented philosophy that suggests that humans can reconcieve themselves and their relationships to nature in nondominating ways

Environmental ethics

A search for moral values and ethics in human relations with the natural world

Environmental Racism

Decisions that restrict certain groups of people from polluted or degraded environments


A provisional explanation that can be tested experimentally.

Inductive Reasoning

Inferring general principles from collected observations

Inherent Value

Belief that we deserve moral consideration no matter what we do because we are human

Instrumental Value

When something is valued because it is valued by someone or something that is valued.


Locally Unwanted Land Uses such as airports, dumps, freeways, or other sources of degradation

Moral Agents

Being capable of acting morally or immorally and can accept their responsibilities

Moral Extensionism

Whom humans consider ethically significant

Moral Subjects

Beings that have moral interests of their own and can be treated rightly or wrongly by others


Ethical principles that guide our actions and relationships


Those who believe that the world has no meaning or purpose other then a unceasing struggle for power and existence


A model that provides a framework for interpreting observations


Choosing the simpler explanation if two appear


Those who believe that moral principles are always important in any situation


Making the same observations or getting the same results more then once


Process for producing knowledge that depends on observations and theories

Scientific Theory

Explanation supported by tests and accepted as true

Significant Numbers

Meaningful numbers that can be verified


Responsibility to care for or manage a particular place

Toxic Colonialism

Sending toxic waste to poorer countries


Believe that major principles of ethics are universal and unchanging


Those who believe that you should live to produce the greatest good for the greatest number of people, for the greatest time


Your ethical beliefs or morals that determine our sense from right or wrong

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