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Junior Cert Chemistry Definitions
Terms in this set (49)
Anything that has mass and takes up space.
Three states of matter
Solid, liquid and gas
Results in a new substance being formed.
Change in a substance with out the substance being changed into something else. Example: change in temperature, shape, volume...
The change of a substance from a liquid to a gas.
Change of state from a liquid to a solid
Change of state from a solid to a liquid
Change in state from a gas to a liquid
Three types of substances
Elements, Compounds and Mixtures
A substance with only one type of atom
A substance which has two or more different types of atoms chemically combined
A substance which has two or more elements and/or compounds mingled together
The combined number of protons and neutrons in an atom.
The number of protons in an atom.
(Usually this is also the number of electrons)
Atomic very small particle with a negative charge that orbits the nucleus of an atom.
A particle in the nucleus of an atom that has a positive charge
A particle that has no charge and that is found in the nucleus of an atom
A charged atom
A chemical bond in which electrons are gained or lost.
A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
The same element with different number of neutrons
Measures strength of acids and bases.
0-6 Acid, 7 Neutral, 8-14 Base (Alkaline)
A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction, with out changing itself.
Test for water
Water turns blue cobalt chloride paper pink
Test for hydrogen
Burns with a pop
Test for carbon dioxide
Turns limewater milky
Test for oxygen
Relights a glowing splint
Elements in group 8 of the periodic table. Inert unreactive gases e.g. Helium, Neon, Argon.
Group 1 elements. 1 electron in outer level, very reactive in water e.g. Lithium, Sodium, Potassium
Alkaline earth metals
Group 2 elements e.g. beryllium, magnesium, calcium.
Atoms in group 7 that are one electron short of a full shell, this makes them highly reactive e.g. Chorine
Water that doesn't lather easily with soap.
Caused by magnesium or calcium ions.
Causes limescale problem but good for brewing.
A list of the number of electrons in each shell of an atom
A chemical reaction between oxygen and iron.
Used to make plastics. The process of creating a polymer from monomers.
Coal, oil, natural gas, and other fuels that are ancient remains of plants and animals.
A reaction from an acid and base.
Salt and water are products of this reaction.
(e.g. NaOH + HCl => NaCl + H20)
A mixture of two or more metals
A mixture that forms when one substance dissolves another.
a solution that cannot dissolve any more solute at that temperature.
The smallest part of an element that still has the properties of that element.
The way particles in a liquid or gas spread out.
The splitting up of a compound with electricity.
A substance that burns in oxygen releasing heat, water and carbon dioxide.
Compounds composed of only carbon and hydrogen atoms
Curved surface of liquid
A group of atoms bonded together
Water that lathers easily with soap
The number of electrons that an atom needs to gain or lose to fill its outer shell.
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