MARS 1011 Exam Review
Terms in this set (141)
water's boiling point
100 degrees Celsius (anomalously high)
The temperature at which a liquid changes to a gas
Which has a higher electronegativity: oxygen or hydrogen?
the ability of an atom to attract electrons
True or false: electrons are not shared equally in the O-H covalent bond.
A chemical bond formed when two atoms share electrons
a molecule in which one side of the molecule is slightly negative and the opposite side is slightly positive
T/F: Water is a polar molecule.
Polar covalent bond
A covalent bond in which electrons are not shared equally, but displaced toward the more electronegative atom.
T/F: Water dissolves polar molecules.
T/F: Hydrogen bonds bond water molecules together.
How do you change the state of water?
Break hydrogen bonds
the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade
elastic property of water surface
latent heat of fusion
The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from solid to liquid without changing temperature
latent heat of vaporization
The amount of energy required to change a unit mass of a substance from liquid to gas without changing temperature
average pressure on total ocean volume 200 atmospheres
A liquid's resistance to flowing
Why does water have a high specific heat?
The direct transfer of heat from one substance to another substance that it is touching.
The transfer of heat by the movement of a fluid
The transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves
the transfer of heat or matter by the flow of a fluid, especially horizontally in the atmosphere or the sea.
T/F: Ice is less dense than water.
T/F: At the same volume, liquid water has more molecules than ice.
Structure of a water molecule:
Why do freshwater lakes stay warm at the bottom during winter even when the surface is frozen?
Ice acts as an insulation from cold air. Freshwater lakes "overturn" as surface cools.
Salinity of hot and cold places:
- Hotter places have more evaporation which leaves more salt
- Colder places with melting ice have less salt
T/F: If you add salt, water gets denser.
What is the salinity of seawater?
Which light spectrums are absorbed last?
Which light spectrums are absorbed first?
Red and IR
Does sound travel faster in air or water?
It travels 4x faster in water.
Is nitrogen active or inactive?
relatively inactive biologically
Is oxygen active or inactive?
very active biologically (photosynthesis and respiration)
Is oxygen soluble?
not very soluble
Is carbon dioxide active or inactive?
very active biologically (photosynthesis and respiration)
Is carbon dioxide soluble?
Seawater gas concentrations are controlled by
- atmospheric concentrations (the ocean will try to equilibrate with atmosphere)
- exchange rates with atmosphere (wind speed, waves, turbulence)
- solubility (temperature, salinity, pressure)
- biology (photosynthesis, respiration, decomposition)
Gases are more soluble at
- lower temperatures
- lower salinity
- higher pressure
What are the biological consequences of the solubility of gases?
- Warmer waters are more likely to have low oxygen.
- Polar surface waters and deep waters have higher oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Sources of oxygen in the ocean:
- photosynthesis (surface only!)
Losses of oxygen in the ocean:
- atmosphere (outgassing)
- respiration (at all depths)
What is higher in the photic ocean zone?
photosynthesis is greater than respiration
What is higher in the mesopelagic ocean zone?
respiration is greater than photosynthesis
What is the oxygen and carbon dioxide profile of the deep sea?
Much more carbon dioxide than oxygen. It reflects the properties set initially at the time of deep water formation and respiration over time since water left the surface.
pH lower than 7
pH higher than 7
pH of ocean
The carbonate system
- Dissolved Gas (CO2)
- Carbonic Acid
How does carbon dioxide get to the deep ocean?
The respiration of sinking organic matter.
photosynthetic algae found near the surface of the ocean
Where do the majority of nutrients come from?
What are the most abundant nutrients in the ocean?
Nitrate, phosphate, silica
Why are concentrations of nutrients in near-surface water around zero?
Photosynthetic organisms use all available nutrients.
Why are concentrations of nutrients just below the thermocline relatively large?
Oxidation and bacterial degradation of organic matter releases N, P, and SiO2.
Why are concentrations of nutrients in abyssal waters greater than in near-surface waters?
No photosynthetic organisms are present to consume nutrients and the oxidation of organic matter releases more nutrients.
Why are concentrations of nutrients in the Pacific greater than in the Atlantic?
The Pacific deep water has had more time to accumulate nutrients from oxidation of organic matter. The Atlantic deep water has only recently descended from the nutrient-depleted surface waters.
The Redfield Ratio:
Carbon:Nitrogen:Phosporous = 106:16:1
What nutrients limit phytoplankton growth?
Nitrate and phosphate
"dead zones"; areas of the coastal ocean where dissolved oxygen levels are < 2mg/L
Overnourishment of aquatic ecosystems with plant nutrients (mostly nitrates and phosphates) because of human activities such as agriculture, urbanization, and discharges from industrial plants and sewage treatment plants.
harmful algal blooms
How are HABs harmful?
Planktonic production of toxins which are ingested and biomagnify up the food chain
What's an example of HABs going up the food chain?
Zooplankton - mussel/anchovy - fish - bird
T/F: Rain is naturally acidic
What is the normal pH of rain?
What pH is acid rain?
What acidifies rain?
Dissolved carbon dioxide
What do acids release in aqueous solutions?
H+ ions (hydrogen)
What do bases release in aqueous solutions?
OH- ions (hydroxide)
decreasing pH of ocean waters due to absorption of excess atmospheric CO2
Effects of ocean acidification
Algae leaves with the rise of acid and temperature; the base of the food web is wiped out
At what temperature does water sink?
4 degrees Celcius
zone of large temperature change
zone of large salinity change
Advantages of life in the ocean:
- less variations in temperature (no adaptations)
- water has higher density than air (buoyancy and less gravity effect)
- abundance of water (no competition)
Disadvantages of life in the ocean:
high frequency, high energy
low frequency, low energy
How much light and nutrients are in the surface of the ocean?
high light incidence, low nutrients concentration
How much light and nutrients are in the deep ocean?
low (to none) light incidence, high nutrients concentration
What do sediments do to light absorption in coastal waters?
Light is refracted from the sediments in the coastal waters, so less light is attenuated than in the open ocean.
production of organic material (ie lipids, sugars, etc) from inorganic material (ie nitrate, phosphate)
Why is primary productivity high in the summer?
There is an abundance of light and nutrients.
T/F: Baleen whales have the longest annual movement of any mammal.
Where do baleen whales go in the summer?
Productive high-latitude feeding grounds near the poles.
Where do baleen whales go in the winter?
Low-latitude breeding grounds near the equator.
What is the most likely hypothesis as to why baleen whales go to warmer breeding grounds?
Predation because orcas are abundant at high altitudes.
What makes orcas particularly lethal to whales?
They live and hunt in pods.
What kind of energy does Earth emit?
Primarily infrared (long wavelength)
What kind of energy does the sun emit?
UV (short wavelength), visible, and infrared (long wavelength)
Earth's energy balance equation:
The sun sends 100 and the earth absorbs 46 while 9 is emitted from the surface and 37 is absorbed in the atmosphere, which means 80% remains in atmosphere.
Natural process by which atmospheric gases trap a major portion (about 80%) of the IR radiated by the Earth
gases capable of absorbing and trapping infrared radiation (IR), thereby warming the atmosphere
Examples of greenhouse gases
Carbon dioxide, water vapor (most abundant), methane, nitrous oxide
T/F: Atmospheric gases trap and return > 80% of the heat radiated by the Earth
How have humans contributed to global warming?
industry, transportation, mining, agriculture
What is the current CO2 concentration?
100ppm higher than any time in the last million years
What's the main problem with global warming?
Not necessarily the concentration of CO2, but the rate at which its increasing is unprecedented.
Where have the most dramatic changes occurred in regards to global warming?
ability of a surface to reflect light
the positive feedback loop in which an increase in the Earth's temperature causes ice to melt so more radiation is absorbed by the Earth's surface leading to further increases in temperature.
What happens to CO2 during an ice age?
It decreases in the atmosphere
Why is CO2 the "villain" if other greenhouse gases are more efficient in absorbing IR radiation?
- CO2's atmospheric lifetime is around 50-200 years (way longer than others)
- 20% of CO2 generated today will still be in atmosphere 1,000 years from now
- CO2 is ~50x more concentrated than methane
- various anthropogenic sources
strong association with ice; strong predation by orcas; exception to general pattern of baleen whales calving in warm waters
What is the Bowhead whale's alternative to migration?
They can break through ice at least 20cm thick.
How could the shrinking icecaps affect Bowhead whales?
They have ice-dependent migration, so if there's lower ice coverage, they'll have a higher exposition to orcas, therefore lower chances of survival.
Gray and Humpback whale migration
They mate and give birth in warm waters and migrate north each spring to feed in polar waters.
How could shrinking icecaps affect gray and Humpback whales?
They migrate to relatively shallow tropical waters so lower ice coverage means larger feeding season which means higher chances of survival.
What's a potential problem for Humpback whales caused by shrinking icecaps?
Krill don't like low ice environments, so because of UV radiation and warmer temperatures, krill population is decreasing.
What is a theory as to why there was an abrupt decline of several marine animals from 1970 to 2000?
Industrial whaling led to decline in great whales which could have led to orca's increased consumption of other animals.
influence from lower to higher trophic levels.
influence moves from top trophic levels to bottom.
What are plastics?
large compounds formed from combinations of many monomers
What raw material does plastic mainly come from?
LDPE/HDPE, Nylon, Lycra, Polyurethane, Teflon, Styrofoam, Polyester
Characteristics of synthetic polymers:
- can be molded, cast, extruded, drawn, laminated into objects, films, filaments
- deliver strength at lower weight
cellulose, starch, protein, and DNA/RNA
T/F: The US produces a larger volume of synthetic polymers than the volume of steel, copper, and aluminum combined.
Big Six Polymers
- Polyethylene (LDPE/HDPE)
- Polypropylene (PP)
- Polystyrene (PS)
- Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
- Polyethylene terephthalate (PET)
HDPE, PP, PET
LDPE, PVC, PS
municipal solid waste
is mostly paper and mostly put into landfills or incinerators
plasticizers (substances added to plastics to increase their flexibility, transparency, durability, and longevity); toxic
added to increase resistance to ignition, reduce flame spread, suppress smoke formation, and prevent a polymer from dripping; toxic
Where is the Great Pacific Ocean Garbage Patch?
North Pacific Gyre
Small plastic particles posing negative consequences to marine environments and wildlife
T/F: Even though we're recycling more plastic than ever in the US, we're recycling less plastic by percentage (1 in 5 plastic soda bottles vs 1 in 3 in 1995)
coasts created by land and air processes
- sediment erosion and deposition by rivers, wind, and ice
- volcanic activity and earthquakes
coasts created by marine processes
- sediment erosion and deposition by waves, tides, and currents
- alterations by marine plants
deposit of river-borne sediment left at a river mouth that produces a flat and fertile coastal area
tectonic activity resulting in faulting and displacement of Earth's crust
wind-modified depositional coast
How are beaches described?
- shape and structure (wide/narrow, steep/flat, long/pocket)
- composition and size of beach materials
- color (white, pink, red, green, black)
What kind of beach has big rocks or pebbles?
A very energetic beach.
sediment transport by a longshore current
Longshore drift moves sediment across the coastline which then forms a spit when the sediment is deposited. Overtime a hook can develop if the wind directions changes, waves cannot get passed a spit which creates a sheltered area where silt can accumulate and form a mudflat.
regions where rivers meet the ocean, formed as a result of sea level rise
Why are estuaries important?
Habitats, nurseries, filter pollutants, and high capacity to exchange water and sediment with the ocean
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