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CSET Subtest V Culture and Context
Terms in this set (82)
studies the relationship between language and society, how they interact and how they modify and impact each other.
With Spanish spoken in so many different countries, geographical location is one of the most significant sociolinguistic factors that affect it.
Metric and imperial measurement systems
Spanish speaking countries use mostly the metric system for all measurements
Royal Spanish Academy 1713
It's responsible for regulating the Spanish language. Concentrates in linguistic planning to provide linguistic agreement and common standard among all the Spanish -speaking regions.
Political and economic facts about Spain today
Capital is Madrid. Currency is the euro. Democracy under a parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
Renewable energy, in particular solar power.
1930s Luis Buñuel first Spanish director.
Carlos Saura, Pedro Almodóvar
The zarzuela is a particular type of performance art that mixes theater and music. In a zarzuela singing and speaking take turns.
The zarzuela originated in Spain in the 17th century, and the pieces were very popular with the kings and other members of the privileged class.
In the 19th and 20th century, they became popular again in Spain. The most famous
composers of zarzuelas
Amadeo Vives, Federico Chueca, José Serrano, and Jacinto Guerrero.
Arab features under the Moorish domination
Diego Velázquez, Las Meninas (The Maids of Honor), 1656
painter of the 17th century.
Became the court painter for king Philip the IV
Museo del Prado in Madrid
Mexican painter; international popularity with self-portraits; surrealism; was married to Diego Rivera; influenced by Rivera, shared his Communist views
Internationally recognized for his novels El tunel, Sobre heroes y tubas, and Abaddon el exterminador.
In his painting he uses exaggerated and disproportionate volumes, to depict the human figure.
Spanish opera singer. Educated in Mexico.
First sang at the New York Metropolitan Opera in 1968
A Spanish painter and printmaker, Goya (1746-1828) worked for the Spanish Crown, and was a member of the Romanticist movement. He painted Third of May, 1808 in commemoration of the massacres of the Spanish people during the French occupation of Iberia.
Jose Clemente Orozco
Mexican muralist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; like Rivera's, his work featured romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
David Alfaro Siquerios
Muralist arias of the period after the Mexican Revolution. His murals are more realities than those of Rivera and Orozco.
Cuban singer known as the queen of salsa. She was also known as the Guarachera de Cuba. She was born in Cuba and later lived in the US. Cruz and her music became a worldwide success. Her discography includes 23 golden albums. She recorded with other artists such as Tito Puente, Johnny Pacheco and Ray Barretto. Celia Cruz is considered the most influential figure of the Cuban music in the 20th century. Her best known songs are La vida es un carnaval, La negra te tiene tumbao, Rie y llora, and Usted abusó.
Spanish surrealist painter
Born in Peru, shorty moved to Chile
Fantastic with the real magic realism
Works: La casa de los espiritus
Mario Vargas Llosa (Peru)
Peruvian write. Realism. He examines the vulgarity of the human nature.
2010 Noble Prize Noble for Literature
was built between the 12th and 13th century in Granada when the Moors occupied Spain. It has Islamic and Christian architectural elements.
1984 UNESCO World Heritage Site
book written in Mayan-Quiché. Mayan myths, history of the Mayans, and some of the Mayans traditions.
a Spanish artist, founder of Cubism, which focused on geometric shapes and overlapping planes
Felix Lope Vega
Spanish writer and poet.
Founder of the Teatro Nacional
Father of modern comedy
stories, essays, and novels
reality, fantasy and absurd
Works: Rayuela, Final de juego, Bestiario, Las armas secretas, Los premios, Nicaragua tan violentamente dulce
Uruguayan writer, best known for his show stories.
His stories have elements of horror, American nature and the supernatural.
novels and short stories
considered the most profound Mexican prose writer. Magic realism
social injustice, hard life, pain, and suffering
use of ghosts and supernatural
Works: El llano en llamas, Pedro Paramo
Jose Luis Borges
Born in Argentina.
Poetry, Essays, and stories.
literary movement: ULTRAISM
Gabriel Garcia Marquez
-a Colombian writer
-won nobel prize in literature in 1982
-wrote perhaps the foremost example of magic realism One Hundred Years of Solitude
-he said fantasy and fact depend on one's poitn of view
Jose Enrique Rodó
Uruguayan writer who wrote modernistic essays
Best modernist prose writer.
His message was always a warning about the North American influence in Latin America
Mexican culture and how to preserve it-novels
real themes in fictional works
Works: La region mas transparente, Las buenas conciencias, Cambio de piel, Terra nostra
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento
Domingo Faustino Sarmiento was an Argentinian writer and politician who wrote essays and novels. He was president of Argentina from 1868 to 1874. He was interested in education and worked as a teacher. One of his main interests was to fight against ignorance, chieftains, and dictatorship. In 1845, he wrote his novel Civilización y barbarie: vida de Facundo Quiroga, also known as Facundo. Other works by Sariento include De la educación popular, Las ciento y una, conflictos y armonías de las razas de América, Mi defensa, and Recuerdos de provincia.
Rubén Darío was:
a mestizo poet from Nicaragua.
Major figure of modernism.
Wrote about social problems created by materialism.
Cuban writer who fought for Cuban independence.
The main message of his works is freedom and liberalism.
Mexican poetry and essay writer.
Noble Prize of Literature 1990
Chilean poets with Marxist convictions.
Most important poet of the 20th century
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
arrived to the new world in October 1492.
He had three ships: la Pinta, la Niña y la Santa Maria
Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla
Mexican priest who led the first stage of the Mexican independence war in 1810. He was captured and executed in 1811.
The most important military leader in the struggle for independence in South America. Born in Venezuela, he led military forces there and in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.
He wrote the constitution for the Republic of Bolivia.
Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz
Mexican poet; denied access into University of Mexico because she was a woman; entered convent and became nun; became famous and great poet; denounced by her bishop for writing secular literature
Spanish conquistador who defeated the Aztecs and conquered Mexico (1485-1547)
Founded La española, today's Dominican Republic and Haiti
Indian group in central Mexico
Most powerful group in Mesoamerica. Its capital was Tenochtitlan.
Their language was the Náhuatl
A Mesoamerican civilization of Central America and southern Mexico. Yucatan, Guatemala, Honduras and Belize
Achievements include mathematics, architecture, and a 365 day a year calendar. They flourished between the 4th and 12th centuries C.E..
Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Argentina, and Chile.
Socia Structure: Clans
Most Famous incas sites are: Machu Pichu, Cuzco, and Pisa
Their language was the Quechua
where South America Begins.
borders with Venezuela, Atlantic Ocean on the east, the Pacific Ocean on the northeast, Ecuador and Panama on the southwest, and Brazil on the southeast.
Discovered by Rodrigo de Bastidas
Spanish called it Nueva Granada.
General Francisco Franco
Dictator of Spain
A Roman Catholic tribunal for investigating and prosecuting charges of heresy - especially the one active in Spain during the 1400s.
Miguel de Unamumo
author form the generation of 98
Main message: Spain needed to abandon its traditions and integrate with Europe
Big influence in Europe
Carlos II de España hasta Felipe V
Benito Perez Galdos
was a realist novelist. Some authorities consider him second only to Cervantes in stature as a Spanish novelist. He was the leading literary figure in 19th century Spain.
Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
Emilia Padron Bazan
known as the Countess was an important novelist from the las decades of the 19th century.
Tried to introduce naturalism in Spain.
Federico Garcia Lorca
Assassinated a few days after the Spanish Civil War started.
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra
wrote the most popular Spanish novel, Don Quijote de la Mancha
The Muslims in Spain
In 711, the Muslims from the north of Africa invaded the Iberian Peninsula and conquered most of it. What is known today as Spain was under Arab control until 1492. Due to the many years the region was under control of Muslims, Arab influence can be seen everywhere. Many of the Spanish words that begin with al- have Arab roots: álgebra, aldea, alguacil, alférez, alcoba, algodón, and alachofa. Another example is the word ojalá, which comes from the phrase "may Allah grant." Many cities in Spain show buildings with clear Muslim influences. the Most famous of these buildings is the mosque of Córdoba, whose architecture and tile decor is typically Arab.
EL cantar del mio Cid
singing poem, very popular form in medieval Spain
Known as the men who unified Spain during the Reconquista
Three groups of islands belong to Spain: Baleric, Canary, and Melilla and Ceuta.
Alfonso X the Wise
king of Castilla-León
Important in history because of his decision of using Castilian as the official language of his kingdom.
(La) Celestina (also called, "Tragicomedy of Calisto and Melibea")
written by Fernando de Rojas in 1499
considered the first Spanish novel
Iberian Peninsula and has 50 provinces.
Spanish language originated here.
The great fleet sent from Spain against England by Philip II in 1588; defeated by the terrible winds and fire ships.
Spanish empire started to decline
Ecuador South America
The economy is based on agriculture. Largest exporter of bananas.
Currency is U.S. dollars
Venezuela South America
Economy based on oil and its products
currency is the bolivar
Uruguay South America
Currency Uruguayan peso
Argentina South America
Part of the Andes run through Argentina
Economy, livestock and oil
currency is the peso
Bolivia South America
Has three official languages: Spanish, Quechua, and Aymara
Paraguay South America
Has two official languages: Spanish and Guaraní
Currency is the guaraní
Peru South America
Incas Machu Pichu
Economy based in agriculture
Currency is Sol
Two official languages is the Spanish and the Quechua
Chile South America
its economy is based in agriculture
Vines and exports of wine are important
currency, Chilean peso
Capital, Panama City
Currency is the balboa
The Antilles is the archipelago int he Caribbean Sea between North and South America. The Greater Antilles are Cuba, Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti), Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. The Lesser Antilles are the islands on the east of the Caribbean Sea and include Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, Saint Lucia, Barbados, Granada, Trinidad, and others.
Capital, Santo Domingo
Currency Dominican peso
Its economy is based on agriculture, mainly sugar cane
last Spanish colony in the new world together with Puerto Rico
Also known as Suramerica or Sudamerica
begging in Colombia and includes: Venezuela, Ecuador, Guyana, Bolivia, Panama, Surinam, Trinidad y Tobago, Brazil, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Chile, Argentina,
Capital, San Juan
Currency, U.S. dollars
Unincorporated territory of the U.S.
Guateamala Central America
Capital Ciudad de Guatemala
Economy, coffee, sugar cane, and bananas
Smallest country in central America
Capital, San Salvador
currency, Salvadoran colón
Coffee is the main agriculture
Capital, San Jose
currency, Costa Rican colon
economy based on agriculture-coffee, bananas, pineapple, and cocoa- and fishing
Bananas is the main export
currency is cordoba
exports, cotton, coffee, sugar, and bananas
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