77 terms

HOSA Physical Therapy

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Conditions that affect the musculoskeletal system are the primary domain of physical therapists who specialize in
orthopedic physical therapy
Physical Therapy for musculoskeletal conditions is the focus on a
patients function
Dysfunctions of the musculoskeletal system result in
symptoms of pain, stiffness, edema(swelling, muscle weakness or fatigue, or loss of range of motion
Range of Motion( ROM)
movement of a joint
The increased use of computers and other technical machinery recurring repeated motions has also had an impact on the incidence of overuse injuries in the upper extremity. They are at risk of...
the development of muscle injury or nerve entrapment requiring intervention by a PT
A orthopaedic PT may work with
athletes but may also treat a variety of musculoskeletal conditions that are not related to sports activities
Musculoskeletal injuries are sustained through
athletic participation, work related injuries, conditions resulting from orthopedic surgical procedures and degenerative changes that accompany the aging process
Overuse injuries
repeated stress to the musculoskeletal system can cause oversees injuries that may result in pain, inflammation, and dysfunction.
Bursitis
an inflammation of bursa, which are fluid-filled sacs located throughout the body that decrease friction between structures. Bursa become irritated and painful when they are repeatedly pinched between structures. EX: injury at the shoulder, the subacromial bursa may be pinched during repeated movements when the shoulder is in a overhead position, such as painting, reaching or throwing.
Tendinopathy
Tendons are the structures that connect muscle to bone. Repeated use or rapid over stretching of muscles can overload and injure the tendons. see pg. 176
Nerve Entrapment
Pressure on a nerve. Symptoms: tingling, pain, weakness, or any combination of these. Common Condition: Carpal Tunnel syndrome, patients usually complain of numbness in hands or fingers which is from the result of repeated activities with the wrist in a flexed position.
Traumatic Injuries
Musculoskeletal injuries that occur as a result of direct trauma. Bones, muscles, ligaments, and other soft tissue may be injured when they sustain a direct blow or when they are placed under excessive stretch.
Ligament Sprain
supporting structures of joints that serve to stabilize the joint and prevent excess movement. When ligaments are overstretched fibers tear and cause pain and instability at the joint. Ex: ACL- result of a cutting or twisting movement of the knee when the foot is planted , commonly occurring in sports.
Fracture
Direct trauma to the bone causing a break. Most common in older adults. Radiographs are used to diagnose.
Muscle Strain
A sudden contraction of a muscle fiber or excessive stretch on a muscle can cause tearing of the muscle fibers.
Total Joint Arthroplasty
Joints most commonly replaced are weight-bearing joints. A variety of plastic and stainless steel implants are used to effectively replace degenerated joint surfaces.
Amputation
Postoperative physical therapy often includes exercises to maintain strength in the remaining of the limb, functional training with a prothesis, and activities to improve overall fitness and well being.
Subjective Examination/Objective Examination
The History of the Patient/The Remaining Parts
Questions asked during a patient interview
about the onset of the condition, current symptoms, previous physical therapy treatments, past medical history, and lifestyle and health habits pertaining to work and recreation. See page 179
Review of Symptoms(ROS)
is usually preformed by using checklists of common symptoms typically associated with various systems of the body.
Systems Review
the objective portion of the examination refers to quantize or qualitative measurements that are taken by the Pt.
Active Range of Motion
refers to the ability of the patient to voluntarily move a limb through an arc of movement. "willingness of patient to move"
Passive Range of Motion
refers to the amount of movement at a joint that is obtained by the therapists moving the segment without the assistance from the patient.
Gonimeter
measures joint angles
Strength
can be defined as the amount of force produced during voluntary muscular contraction
Manual Muscle testing
allows the therapist to assign a specific grade to the muscle.
Flexibility
refers to the ability to move a ligament through specific ROM. The amount of flexibility at a given joint depends on: the soft tissue surrounding the joint most be pliable to allow movement between the joint surfaces. Also, the muscles crossing the joint must be at the appropriate length allow motion to occur.
Accessory Motion
the ability of the joint surfaces to glide, roll, and spin on each other.
Outcome Measures
are standardized instruments that measure an individuals actual or perceived activity limitations and participations restrictions and an individuals quality of life or health status.
Special Tests
used to examine specific joints to indicate the presence or absence of a particular problem.
Palpatation
PT's use their sense of touch, to assess what is occurring below the skin. The PT feels for areas of tenderness, areas of restrictions, swelling, and proper orientation of structures.
Patient Specific Functional Scale (PSFS)
The patient is asked to list up to five activities that he or she is having difficulty preforming because of his or her injury or condition. zero to 10 scale
Physical Agents
are available for PTs to incorporate into the plan of care when treating patients with musculoskeletal problems. EX: heat, cold, electrical stimulation
Fluidtherapy
is the use of a self-contained unit filled with corncobs finely chopped into a sawdust type substance.
Hydrotheraphy
the use of therapeutic effects of water
Thermal Ultrasound
the use of therapeutic of high frequency sound waves that penetrate tissue and increase tissue temperature to promote healing and reduce pain.
Short-wave diathermy
the use of electromagnetic energy to produce deep heating effects
Creyotherapy
therapeutic cold may be applied to decrease tissue temperature.
akinesia
Loss of voluntary movements
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
also known as Lou Gehrick disease rapidly progressive neurological disorder associated with a degeneration of the motor nerve cells
angiography
technique in which radiopaque material is injected into the blood vessels to to better visualize and identify such as blockage of blood vessels, aneurysms, and vascular malformations
bradykinesia
slowness of movement
Bruunstorm approach
Neurologic technique based on the natural sequence of recovery after a stroke
computed (axial) tomography (CAT) (CT)
computer synthesis of x-rays transmitted through a specific plane of the body
Constraint-induced movement therapy
is a form of rehabilitation therapy that improves upper extremity function in stroke and other central nervous system damage victims by increasing the use of their affected upper limb
electroencephalgraphy
technique for recording the electrical potential or activity in the brain by placing electrodes on the scalp
electromyography (EMG)
technique for recording the electrical activity in the muscle during a state of rest and during voluntary contraction
expressive aphasia
impaired ability to express oneself
hypertonia
high muscle tone
hypotonia
low muscle tone
loco motor training
type of therapy to help improve and recover your walking movement through challenged practice and lower extremity weight bearing. You may benefit from therapy to recover locomotor abilities if you're experiencing: Impaired movement and sensations (impaired neurological body functions)
lumbar puncture (LP)
injection of a hypodermic needle into the lumbar sub-arachnoid space
magnetic resonance imaging MRI
creation of computer image by placing the body part in a magnetic field
motor control
ability to manipulate movement and non movement of the body's musculoskeletal components
motor development
age related processes of change in motor behavior
motor learning
body's mechanism for acquiring or learning voluntary motor control
multiple sclerosis MS
disease in patches of demyelination occur in the nervous system, leading to disturbances in conduction of action potential along the nerves
nerve conduction velocity (NCV)
study that records the rate at which electrical signals are transmitted along peripheral nerves.
neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT)
Approach to both analyze and treat neurological of posture and movement.
neuroplasticity
the ability to of neurons in the brain to compensate for injury or disease
paraplegia
spinal cord damage and resultant loss of sensory or motor function affecting the lower leg trunk and legs
Parkinson's disease
progressive condition caused by a lack of the neurotransmitter dopamine, characterized by tremors, rigidity, and bradykinesia and alkinesia
perception
ability to to integrate various simultaneous sensory inputs and to respond appropriately
proprioceptive nueromuscular facilitation (PNF)
technique used to enhance movement and motor control, emphasizing proprioceptive (joint and position sense) stimuli but also using tactile, visual, and auditory stimuli
receptive aphasia
diminished ability to receive and interpret verbal or written communication
rigidity
disturbance of muscle tone; manifests as a resistance when the limbs are passively moved
sensation
ability to receive sensory input from within and outside the body and transmit it through nerves to interpret in brain
spasticity
(from Greek spasmos-, meaning "drawing, pulling") is a feature of altered skeletal muscle performance with a combination of paralysis, increased tendon reflex activity and hypertonia. It is also colloquially referred to as an unusual "tightness", stiffness, or "pull" of muscles.
spinal cord injury (SCI)
damage to the spinal cord that results in neurological dysfunction
stroke or cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
neurological problem arising from disruption of of blood flow in the brain
systems model
...
task-oriented approach
intervention technique used for nueromuscular conditons that focuses on the specific intended task and retraining using functional activities to accomplish the task
tetraplegia
spinal cord damage damage resulting in loss of sensory or motor function in all limbs
tone
tension exerted and or maintained by muscles at rest and during movement
traumatic brain injury (TBI)
damage to the brain caused by physical means and resulting in dysfunction
tremor
alternating contractions of opposing muscle groups
vertigo
sensation of spinning or whirling that occurs as a result of a disturbance in balance