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Rock Cycle Vocabulary Terms
Terms in this set (35)
A naturally occurring solid mixture of one or more minerals of organic matter
The sequence of events in which rocks are formed, destroyed, altered, and reformed by geological processes.
Molten rock material beneath Earth's surface.
Molten rock material on Earth's surface.
A compression process that reorients and reshapes the grains of a sediment and squeezes out water in response to the weight of overlying deposits.
A type of rock that forms when particles from other rocks or the remains of plants and animals are pressed and cemented together.
clastic sedimentary rocks
The most common type of sedimentary rocks, are formed from the abundant deposits of loose sediments found on Earth's surface and the lithification process. (breccia)
A clastic sedimentary rock that contains large (greater then two millimeters in diameter) rounded particles. The space between the pebbles is generally filled with smaller particles and/or a chemical cement that binds the rock together.
organic sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that is formed from the accumulation and lithification of remains of living things. (coal)
chemical sedimentary rock
Sedimentary rock that is formed by the precipitation of dissolved minerals from water. (rock salt)
The remains, impressions, or traces of any living thing such as animals, fungus, protozoa or bacteria that have been preserved in the Earth's lithosphere.
A type of rock that forms from the cooling of molten rock at or below the Earth's surface.
intrusive igneous rock
Rock formed from the cooling and crystallization of magma beneath the Earth's surface.
A usually light colored, coarse grained igneous rock that is found in continental crust.
extrusive igneous rock
Rock formed from the cooling and crystallization of lava rapidly at or near the Earth's surface.
Volcanic rocks that has virtually no pores or holes and has a glassy texture.
Volcanic rocks that form with air (bubbles) still trapped inside them leaving rock with pores.
A type of rock that forms from an existing rock that is changed by heat, pressure, or chemical reaction.
The process that occurs when high temperature and pressure combine to alter the texture, mineralolgy, or chemical composition of a rock without melting it.
Occurs when high temperature and pressure affect large regions of Earth's crust.
Occurs when molten rocks, such as those in an igneous intrusion, come in contact with solid rock, under high temperature and moderate-to-low pressure conditions.
Occurs when very hot water reacts with rock and alters its chemistry and mineralogy.
The texture of metamorphic rock in which mineral grains are arrange in wavy layers and bands.
A coarse-grained, foliated rock produced by regional metamorphism.
The texture of metamorphic rock in which mineral grains are not arranged in planes or bands
The processes through which sediments are converted into sedimentary rock, including compaction and cementation.
The chemical makeup of a rock; describes either the minerals or other materials in the rock.
The processes through which chemical precipitates form within the pore spaces of a sediment and help bind it into a sedimentary rock.
The process in which sedimentary rocks are arranged in layers.
Occurs when sediments are laid down on the ground or sink to the bottoms of bodies of water.
A loose, unconsolidated deposit of weathering debris, chemical precipitates or biological debris that accumulates on Earth's surface.
An igneous rock texture characterized by large, well formed crystals surrounded by finer-grained crystals of the same mineral or different minerals, which is caused by a slow cooling period that is followed by a rapid cooling period.
The breaking down of rocks and other materials on the Earth's surface.
The process by which wind, water, ice, or gravity transports soil and sediment from one location to another.
The look and feel of a rock's surface, determined by size, shape, and pattern of a rock's grain.
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