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Functions of lymphatic system
assist cardiovascular system by returning excess fluid to the blood to maintain fluid balance; assist immune system
Hepatic portal system
digested fats are transferred from the GI system to the liver and then must go to the circulation; fluid in the interstitium is recaptured and put back into the cardiovascular system
Lymphatic system and immunity
transports and houses lymphocytes and other immune cells that help the immune system defend against foreign substances or pathogens
Lymphatic ducts and trunks
lymph is transported through progressively larger and larger lymph vessels, including lymphatic capillaries, vessels, trunks, and ducts; lymphatic ducts drain lymph into venous circulation
provide a conduit from the peripheral tissues to the venous system; drain into lymph nodes
Lymphatic vessel structure
begin as a blind ended tube; larger lumens and thinner walls than capillaries; endothelial cells are loosely bound together with overlaps or openings; acts as a one-way valve
movement of cancerous cells from the point of origin via the lymphatic vessels to new sites
parasitic filarial worms live, breed, and block the lymphatic vessels; mosquitoes are the vector
Antigen presenting cells (APCs)
cells that phagocytose a foreign component, digest most of the molecules but present parts of the component on its cell surface
Education of lymphocytes
occurs in bone marrow and B lymphocytes leave; occurs in thymus and T lymphocytes leave
Migration of lymphocytes
occurs via blood or lymphatic vessels to occupy CT as free cells or in lymphatic nodules; in lymph nodes; and in spleen
Naive B lymphocytes
educated by presenting with self-antigens; if they recognize self-antigens, they are killed
Naive T lymphocytes
leave bone marrow and migrate to the thymus; education occurs in thymus in the presence of epithelial reticular cells
Secondary lymphatic structures
lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, lymph nodules (MALT); sites of cell activation and proliferation
collections of lymphocytes (MALT, GALT, BALT); germinal center mostly B cells; marginal zone T cells; macrophages everywhere
located along lymphatic vessels; all lymph fluid must pass through to be cleaned by lymphocytes and returned to the blood
from subscapular space; through outer cortex; through paracortex; through core/medulla; into hilum and efferent lymphatics
Blood flow in the spleen
blood enters via arteries and percolates through the white pulp and red pulp where it is monitored and cleaned; blood can move in and out of sinusoidal capillaries; eventually exits via the venous system
arteries branch out through the spleen and discharge blood at sinusoidal capillaries; collections of lymphocytes serve to detect and remove pathogens; clean blood collected back into venues and returned to circulation
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