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AP Psychology Chapter 8: Language and Thought
Terms in this set (49)
Refers broadly to mental processes or thinking.
Analysis of one's own concious experience.
Consists of symbols that convey meaning, plus rules for combining those symbols, that can be used to generate an infinite variety of messages.
The smallest speech units in a language that can be distinguished perceptually.
The smallest units of meaning in a language.
The area of language concerned with understanding the meaning of words and word combinations.
A system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences.
Producing a wide variety of sounds that correspond to phonemes and eventually, many repetitive consonant-vowel combinations.
Vocabulary Spurt/Naming Explosion
Begins at around 18 months when toddlers discover everything has a name.
The process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only one exposure.
Occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions than it is meant to.
Occur when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions than it is meant to.
Consists mainly of content words; articles, prepositions, and other less critical words are omitted.
Occur when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply.
The ability to reflect on the use of language.
The acquisition of two languages that use different speech sounds, vocabulary, and grammatical rules.
Processing Speed/Verbal Fluency
The ease with which people can think of words.
Severe impairment of memory and cognitive functioning.
He was a behaviorist. Argued that children learn language through imitation, reinforcement, and other established principles of conditioning.
He was a nativist. Argued children can't learn through imitation because there's an infinite number of sentences in a language.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Chomsky. An innate mechanism or process that facilitates the learning of language.
They assert that biology and experience both make important contributions to the development of language.
They argue that the neural circuits supporting language are not prewired but emerge gradually in response to language learning experiences.
The hypothesis that one's language determines the nature of one's thought.
Refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable.
The tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use.
Exists when people persist in using problem solving strategies that have worked in the past.
Occurs when people suddenly discover the correct solution to a problem after struggling with it for a while.
To refer to the set of possible pathways to a solution considered by the problem solver.
Trial and Error
Involves trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works.
A methodical, step-by-step procedure for trying all possible alternatives in searching for a solution to a problem.
A guiding principle or "rule of thumb" used in problem solving or decision making. Shortcut to algorithms.
Occurs when new solutions surface for a previously unsolved problem after a period of not conciously thinking about the problem.
Holistic Cognitive Style
Displayed in East Asian cultures. Focuses on context and relationships among elements in a field.
Analytic Cognitive Style
Displayed in Western cultures. Focuses on objects and their properties rather than context.
Involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
Theory of Bounded Rationality
Asserts that people tend to use simple strategies in decision making that focus only on a few facets of available options and often result in "irrational" decisions that are less than optimal.
Elimination by Aspects
Assumes that alternatives are eliminated by evaluating them on each attribute or aspect in turn.
Risky Decision Making
Involves making choices under conditions of uncertainty.
Represents what an outcome is personally worth to an individual.
Involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind.
Involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event.
Occurs when people estimate that the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone.
Dual Process Theories
Posit that people depend on two very different modes or systems of thinking when making decisions.
The belief that the odds of a chance event increase if the event hasn't occurred recently.
The tendency to only seek information that is likely to support one's decisions and beliefs.
Refers to how decision issues are posed or how choices are structured.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Asserts that different languages may lead people to think about things differently.
Refers to deliberately choosing words to create specific emotional responses.
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
Understanding Psychology, Student Edition
Richard A. Kasschau
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
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