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Hormones

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Anterior Pituitary
hGH,TSH,FSH,LH,PRL,ACTH,MSH
hGH Target
Liver, muscle, cartilage, bone
hGH Function
Stimulates growth of body cells, protein synthesis
hGH Regulated by
GHRH, GHIH
TSH Target
Thyroid
TSH Function
Stimulates release of thyroid hormones
TSH Regulated by
TRH- stimulated by low T3 and T4 and BMR
GHIH
FSH Target
Ovaries/Testes
FSH Function
F: oocyte development & estrogen secrection
M: sperm production
FSH Regulated by
GnRH
LH Target
Ovaries/Testes
LH Function
F: estrogen and progesterone secretion & timing of ovulation
M: testosterone producton
LH Regulated by
GnRH
PRL Target
Mammary gland
PRL Function
Promotes milk secretion
PRL Regulated by
PRH, PIH, dopamine
ACTH Target
Adrenal Cortex
ACTH Function
Stimulates secretion of cortisol by adrenal cortex
ACTH Regulated by
CRH
MSH Target
Brain/skin
MSH Function
Influences brain activity; causes darkening of skin
MSH Regulated by
CRH and Dopamine
Posterior Pituitary
Oxytocin and ADH
Oxytocin Target
Uterus and Mammary glands
Oxytocin Function
Stimulates uterine contractions and milk "letdown"
Oxytocin Regulated by
Uterine growth and suckling
ADH Target
Kidney, Skin, and Arterioles
ADH Function
Conserves water by decreasing urine volume, decrease perspiration, constricts arterioles
ADH Regulated by
Dehydration, blood pressure, blood loss, alcohol
Thyroid follicular cells
T3 and T4
T3 and T4 Target
Multiple cells
T3 and T4 Function
Increases metabolism
T3 and T4 Regulated by
TSH
Thyroid parafollicular cells
Calcitonin (CT)
CT Target
Bone and Kidney
CT Function
Lowers blood calcium levels
CT Regulated by
Blood calcium
Parathyroid chief cells
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
PTH Target
Bone and Kidney
PTH Function
Increases blood calcium levels
PTH Regulated by
Blood calcium
Adrenal cortex
Aldosterone, cortisol, DHEA (androgens),
Aldosterone Target
Kidney
Aldosterone Function
Conserves water by increases blood sodium levels and water retention
Aldosterone Regulated by
Dehydration, Sodium deficiency, blood loss, high blood potassium
Cortisol Target
Multiple tissues
Cortisol Function
increases protein breakdown, provides resistance to stress, depresses immune system
Cortisol Regulated By
ACTH, stress, low blood cortisol
DHEA Target
Reproductive organs
DHEA Function
Source of estrogen, male and female secondary sex charactersitics
DHEA Regulated by
ACTH
Adrenal Medulla
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Epin. & Norepin. Target
Nervous system
Epin. & Norepin. Function
Increase HR and BP, increase blood flow to skeletal muscle liver and heart, increase blood glucose
Epin. & Norepin. Regulated by
Sympathetic response to stress and exercise, "fight or flight"
Pancreas Alpha cells
Glucagon
Glucagon target
multiple tissues
Glucagon function
increase blood glucose
Glucagon regulated by
blood glucose
Pancreas Beta cells
Insulin
Insulin target
multiple tissues
Insulin function
decreases blood glucose
Insulin regulated by
blood glucose
Ovaries
Estrogen and Progesterone
Estrogen target
female reproductive system
Estrogen function
regulate female repro. cycle, prepare mammary glands for lactation, develops female 2nd-ary sex characteristics
Estrogen regulated by
FSH and LH
Progesterone target
female repro.
Pro. function
maintains pregnancy, helps regulate female reproductive cycle
Pro. regulated by
LH and development of corpus luteum
Testes
Testosterone
Testosterone target
male repro.
Testosterone function
regulates sperm formation
Testosterone regulated by
LH
Pineal
Melatonin
Melatonin target
Brain and skin
Melatonin function
sets biological clock
Melatonin regulated by
Darkness
Thymus
Thymosin
Thymosin target
thymus
Thymosin function
maturation of T cells
Thymosin regulated by
Presence of immature T cells in thymus