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Anterior Pituitary


hGH Target

Liver, muscle, cartilage, bone

hGH Function

Stimulates growth of body cells, protein synthesis

hGH Regulated by


TSH Target


TSH Function

Stimulates release of thyroid hormones

TSH Regulated by

TRH- stimulated by low T3 and T4 and BMR

FSH Target


FSH Function

F: oocyte development & estrogen secrection
M: sperm production

FSH Regulated by


LH Target


LH Function

F: estrogen and progesterone secretion & timing of ovulation
M: testosterone producton

LH Regulated by


PRL Target

Mammary gland

PRL Function

Promotes milk secretion

PRL Regulated by

PRH, PIH, dopamine

ACTH Target

Adrenal Cortex

ACTH Function

Stimulates secretion of cortisol by adrenal cortex

ACTH Regulated by


MSH Target


MSH Function

Influences brain activity; causes darkening of skin

MSH Regulated by

CRH and Dopamine

Posterior Pituitary

Oxytocin and ADH

Oxytocin Target

Uterus and Mammary glands

Oxytocin Function

Stimulates uterine contractions and milk "letdown"

Oxytocin Regulated by

Uterine growth and suckling

ADH Target

Kidney, Skin, and Arterioles

ADH Function

Conserves water by decreasing urine volume, decrease perspiration, constricts arterioles

ADH Regulated by

Dehydration, blood pressure, blood loss, alcohol

Thyroid follicular cells

T3 and T4

T3 and T4 Target

Multiple cells

T3 and T4 Function

Increases metabolism

T3 and T4 Regulated by


Thyroid parafollicular cells

Calcitonin (CT)

CT Target

Bone and Kidney

CT Function

Lowers blood calcium levels

CT Regulated by

Blood calcium

Parathyroid chief cells

Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)

PTH Target

Bone and Kidney

PTH Function

Increases blood calcium levels

PTH Regulated by

Blood calcium

Adrenal cortex

Aldosterone, cortisol, DHEA (androgens),

Aldosterone Target


Aldosterone Function

Conserves water by increases blood sodium levels and water retention

Aldosterone Regulated by

Dehydration, Sodium deficiency, blood loss, high blood potassium

Cortisol Target

Multiple tissues

Cortisol Function

increases protein breakdown, provides resistance to stress, depresses immune system

Cortisol Regulated By

ACTH, stress, low blood cortisol

DHEA Target

Reproductive organs

DHEA Function

Source of estrogen, male and female secondary sex charactersitics

DHEA Regulated by


Adrenal Medulla

Epinephrine and Norepinephrine

Epin. & Norepin. Target

Nervous system

Epin. & Norepin. Function

Increase HR and BP, increase blood flow to skeletal muscle liver and heart, increase blood glucose

Epin. & Norepin. Regulated by

Sympathetic response to stress and exercise, "fight or flight"

Pancreas Alpha cells


Glucagon target

multiple tissues

Glucagon function

increase blood glucose

Glucagon regulated by

blood glucose

Pancreas Beta cells


Insulin target

multiple tissues

Insulin function

decreases blood glucose

Insulin regulated by

blood glucose


Estrogen and Progesterone

Estrogen target

female reproductive system

Estrogen function

regulate female repro. cycle, prepare mammary glands for lactation, develops female 2nd-ary sex characteristics

Estrogen regulated by

FSH and LH

Progesterone target

female repro.

Pro. function

maintains pregnancy, helps regulate female reproductive cycle

Pro. regulated by

LH and development of corpus luteum



Testosterone target

male repro.

Testosterone function

regulates sperm formation

Testosterone regulated by




Melatonin target

Brain and skin

Melatonin function

sets biological clock

Melatonin regulated by




Thymosin target


Thymosin function

maturation of T cells

Thymosin regulated by

Presence of immature T cells in thymus

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