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AP HUGE Unit 5 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (39)
Rain containing acids that form in the atmosphere when industrial gas emissions (especially sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides) combine with water.
Commercial agriculture characterized by the integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
When animals are tamed and used for food and profit.
An underground water reservoir.
The amount of biological or living diversity per unit area. It includes the concepts of species diversity, habitat diversity and genetic diversity.
the introduction of new production techniques, processing technology, infrastructure, and larger, motorized boats as well as the application of transgenics for fishing
Largest number of individuals of a population that a environment can support
Agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
The action of clearing a wide area of trees faster than it can regrow.
Degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
A series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and common land in the country, creating legal property rights to land that was previously considered common.
Farming practices that involve putting relatively little energy into the land for the calories extracted
An alternative to international trade that emphasizes small businesses and worker-owned and democratically run cooperatives and requires employers to pay workers fair wages, permit union organization, and comply with minimum environmental and safety standards.
First Agricultural Revolution
Dating back 10,000 years, it achieved plant domestication and animal domestication
An area in a developed country where healthy food is difficult to obtain
Genetically modified organisms
An organism whose genetic material has been altered through some genetic engineering technology or technique
Rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers.
A ring of land maintained as parks, agriculture, or other types of open space to limit the sprawl of an urban area.
A form of farming in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land.
A way of supplying water to an area of land
Long-lot survey system
divides land into narrow parcels that extend from rivers, roads, or canals
Non-subsistence crops such as tea, cacao, coffee, and tobacco
Metes and bounds system
A system of land surveying east of the Appalachian Mountains. It is a system that relies on descriptions of land ownership and natural features such as streams or trees.
Approach to farming and ranching that avoids the use of herbicides, pesticides, growth hormones, and other similar synthetic inputs.
Destruction of vegetation caused by too many grazing animals consuming the plants in a particular area so they cannot recover
A form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals.
deliberate tending of crops to gain certain desired attributes; began around 12,000 years ago along several fertile river valleys and cultural hearths.
A form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area.
Rectangular land survey
System that was adopted by the U.S. Government & divides land into rectangular parcels
Second Agricultural Revolution
Tools and equipment were modified, methods of soil preparation, fertilization, crop care, and harvesting improved the general organization of agriculture made more efficient
A form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period.
Slash and burn agriculture
Another name for shifting cultivation, so named because fields are cleared by slashing the vegetation and burning the debris.
Agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
In American commercial grain agriculture, a farm on which no one lives; planting and harvesting is done by hired migratory crews.
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
A farming system that is in the form of steps going up a mountain
Third Agricultural Revolution
Currently in progress, it has as its principal orientation the development of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO's)
The seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures.
Von Thunen Model
An agricultural model that spatially describes agricultural activity in terms of rent. Activities that require intensive cultivation and cannot be transported over great distances pay higher rent to be close to the market. Conversely, activities that are more extensive , with goods that are easy to transport, are located farther from the market where rent is less.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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