a contrast between what appears to be true and what really is true
a writer or speaker says one thing but really means another
a contrast between what readers expect to happen and what really happens
the audience or the reader knows something important that a character does not
the series of related events that make up a story
point of view
the vantage point from which the writer has chosen to tell the story
omniscient point of view
the writer knows everything there is to know about a character and their problems
third-person point of view
the thoughts and feels of just one character are focused on
first-person point of view
the character actually tells the story, using the pronoun 'i"
writing that ridicules something or someone in order to reveal a weakness
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