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Cardio set 2
Terms in this set (35)
The ability of the cardiac muscle fibers to stretch, determines the force of the myocardial contration
Preload (Starling's Law)
Pressure of the heart (especially left ventricle) must push against to eject blood
cardiac muscle force
amount of blood ejected with each force
amount of blood in liters per min. pumped by ventricles
Stimulation of renin ->
increased aldosterone ->
increased ADH ->
**stimulates even lower CO
Effects of reduced cardiac output
Pt comes in exhibiting anxiety, SOB, diaphoresis. You begin your respiratory assessment and detect crackles and wheezes. You begin to suspect an issue but to confirm you go straight to your cardio assessment and notice an S3, S4 gallop. What could your patient be facing?
Left sided CHF
Pt comes in and cardiac biomarker test were done and a high level of Troponin was noted what are they concerned about?
Your pt. has been dealing with untreated HF because of this lack of treatment you begin to see signs of
Pulmonary edema, dysrhythmias, Pulmonary embolism, Pericardial effusion / cardiac tamponade, cardiac arrest, cardiogenic shock
Known as "White Out"
Pt comes in and upon cardio assessment you notice a muffled heart sound. Pt. is exhibiting a dry cough, dyspnea, anxiety and finally syncope. What do you anticipate this pt. diagnosis will be?
Child comes in with a Hx of strep., dyspnea, chest pains, heart palpitations, fatigue, aches, swollen and painful joints. What do you anticipate the pt having?
What people are at risk for infective endocarditis?
IV drug users, Auto Immune Suppressed
Staph or Strep
antibiotics; hand hygiene
Acute or sub-acute infection on the endothelial surface (valves) causes vegetative cauliflower like growth, organism travels and colonizes on valves and forms a protective shell. The shell makes it difficult to treat
With _____ you can treat the infection
Pt. comes in with symptoms of nausea and vomiting. Upon assessment you notice JVD and bounding pulse. While assessing cardio you notice dysrhythmias and increased cardiovascular pressure. These are s/s of ?
Right sided CHF
Pt. complains of pain in jaw and a feeling of elephant on chest after heavy meal. What may they be experiencing?
Two kinds of classifications of drugs that may be anticipated with CAD are..
Thrombolytic Enzymes and Anticoagulants
Medications used for angina?
If a pt gets in within 6 hours of an angina attack they will more than likely give them___, which will help prevent infarction
Pain scale for angina pt we are to note
Position are they in, scale
Quality of pain, quantity
Blood flow to heart is decreased by 80-90%
ACS stands for and includes
Acute Coronary Syndrome unstable angina and myocardial infarction
Pt. comes in for the first time with left arm pain, pt. is given the MONA procedure. After an overnight evaluation pt. is preparing to be released with a Rx of nitro and directions on how to handle things should the angina arise. Several weeks pass and another event occurs and pt. sublingually deposits the nitro and nothing happens, after 5 min the pt deposits another again to no avail. Finally after another 5 min the pt is still experiencing the same pain and administers the last nitro that can be given, nothing happens still pain, what may be going on with this pt.?
Unstable Angina and an MI may soon occur
Pt. comes in with a sense of impending doom, anxious, and confused, decreased pulses, what is your concern?
MONA is also used for _____
A pt. comes in with hypertension the first line of meds that you would expect to be given is...
Diuretic, Beta blocker or both
Once diuretic and or Beta blockers are given with pt. if not effective then ___,___,___,___
Ace inhibitor, Calcium channel blocker, Lasix or Aldactone if trouble with K+
If pt arrives with a BP > 180/120 it is a ________ and must be ________
Hypertensive Emergency , lowered immediately to prevent damage to target organs
Pt. is experiencing pain, and a pallor skin, with a sensation of tingling, prickling and burning (parathesia) down legs with accompanying paralysis and cold skin (poikilothermia). What do you suspect?
Pt complains of cramping or burning (claudication) when walking that disappears when resting. This is a symptom of ___
It is important for a nurse to help improve_____ and ____with a pt experiencing arterial insufficiency. We are also to help relieve____ and maintain ______ ________ because PAD is known to cause _____ _____
circulation, vasodilation, pain, skin integrity , Ischemic Ulcers
angioplasty stents are used for
insufficiency or occlusive disease
Young lady comes in with pain in lower leg and has a Hx of smoking and oral contraceptives. What is your concern? Chief drugs to admin?
DVT, Heparin and Coumadin
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