Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
Terms in this set (59)
Adam Smith proposed that each person pursuing his own self-interest will end up benefiting society as a whole. The "invisible hand". Markets should be allowed to operate without interference.
emphasizes that supply and demand will set prices for good and services. Takes into account buyers preferences and consumer choices. Think of short term effects more than long term.
Costs not borne by individuals directly involved in transactions
argue that natural systems do not grow continuously so human economic systems cannot do so either. No past civilization has been able to grow without limit. Ecological economists argue for a steady-state economy.
argue that we can continue growth but we must take the external costs of economic activity into account and value ecosystem services properly. By doing so we can continue growth without destroying the environment.
living off the grid
Capitalist market economy
buy goods and services
Centrally planned economy
government determines prices on the market and which goods and services are allowed
Muir's ethic included ecocentrist and anthropocentrist ideals.
founder of the conservation movement in the U.S
animals should have rights like people and things like plants should not
same belief as singer but believes people in a vegitative state has no rights while the unborn future generation does have rights
Everything that exsits has a right to ex: animals, people, plants, rocks etc
future generations have no rights and have only rights to things that exist when they are born
Nature is valued for the resources it can provide for human use.
All life has ethical standing.
The value of individual people or organisms is less important than the value of a functioning ecosystem.
A human-centered view of our relationship with the environment.
the view or belief that the rights and needs of humans are not more important than those of other living things.
whole ecological systems have value
injecting liquid into the shale after it has been broken up to release the gas
A sedimentary rock formed by the deposition of successive layers of clay.
a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual.
Tragedy of the Commons
situation in which people acting individually and in their own interest use up commonly available but limited resources, creating disaster for the entire community
Legislative Branch (Congress)
Create laws intended to help maintain the environment
Executive Branch (President)
Pass policies that help the environment
Judicial Branch (Supreme Court)
Interpret and enforce these Environmental policies
occurs when positive outside forces (like ecosystem services) and external costs are not considered. Government intervention is used to counteract it.
the practice of advertising sustainable practices on the labels of certain products to attract more consumers.
is a form of economic progress that maintains resources for the future.
the use of natural resources for economic advancement not just survival.
a federal, state, or local government agency established to perform a specific function
Negative feedback loop
Stabilizes a system
When the system is balanced
Positive feedback loop
Drives a system further toward an extreme instead of stabilizing it
Number of Environmentalism Waves
The process of nutrient over enrichment
All organisms and nonliving entities occurring and interacting in a particular area
Rate at which autotrophs convert energy to biomass
High net primary productivity
Ecosystems whose plants rapidly convert solar energy to biomass
Transitional zones between two ecosystems in which elements of each ecosystem mix
The study of how landscape structure affects organisms
communities, or habitat form the landscape and are distributed in complex patterns (a mosaic)
Study the loss, protection, and restoration of biodiversity
Essential services provided by healthy, normally functioning ecosystems
The typical system of regulation whereby government tells business how to reach certain goals, checks that these commands are followed, and punishes offenders.
Green taxes; ecological tax reform
Refers to taxes intended to promote ecologically sustainable activities via economic incentives. Such a policy can complement or avert the need for regulatory (command and control) approaches.
a special benefit given to promote specific economic or social objectives.
1st wave of environmental policy
1700s-late 1800s; development with populations moving west
2nd wave of environmental policy
Late 1800s to 1900s; conservation and national park system
3rd wave of environmental policy
mid-20th Century to present; pollution
first national park founded by Grant in 1872
highest primary production
algal bed and reefs, rain forests
lowest primary production
open ocean, deserts
nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulfur
iron, chlorine, manganese, boron, zinc, copper
a reservoir that releases more materials than it accepts
a reservoir that releases excepts more than it releases
Triple Bottom Line
economical perfomance, economic development, and social inclusion can all create sustianable development together
Sets with similar terms
Chapter 5: Environmental Economics and Environment…
Environmental Science Chapter 5 Economic…
Chapter 5 (Environmental Science) (Test 1)
Chapter 5: Economics, Policy, and Sustainable Deve…
Other sets by this creator
intercultural com midterm
Environment Test 2
Other Quizlet sets
Sociology Exam 2
IMC 404 Quiz
Chapter 6 Environmental Disease