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Intro to OT/Chaps 1&2/Green
Terms in this set (64)
Activity in which one engages
Treatment of an illness or disability
End toward which effort is directed
State or condition of being involved
State or condition of being self-reliant (independent)
Action for which a person is specifically fitted
A practice that uses goal-directed activity to promote independence in function.
Areas of Occupation
Various life activities, including activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living, education, work, play, leisure, and social participation.
The ability to carry our activities of daily life (including activities in the areas of occupation)
An activity used during intervention that is goal-directed and may or many not be viewed as meaningful to the client. These activities typically involve an end product and are goal-directed.
Occupational therapy practitioner
refers to two different levels of clinicians: occupational therapies (OT) or an occupational therapy assistant (OTA)
Activities that have meaning and give people identity
refers to the basic units of action (ex: mixing the batter is a task associated with cooking)
Personal traits of an OT practitioner
A desire to help others; appreciate diversity and people's ability to change; empathetic; flexible; committed; dedicated; must always invest in continued growth with the field
Mandate of the OT profession
To help clients engage in occupations, and the recipients of therapy include people who have problems that interfere with their ability to engage in everyday activities.
OT practitioners serve:
All ages (infants to older adults) and clients with physical, cognitive, psychological, and or psychosocial impairments, which may be the result of an accident, trauma, disease, conflict or stress.
OT personnel work:
In hospitals, clinics, schools, clients' homes, community settings, and even prisons.
Help get the client ready for the purposeful activity
(Ex: moving the limbs through a range)
made-up of activities that may include some of the same skills required for the occupation
Ex: Tying shoes by using a doll to simulate this activity before actually trying it on her own shoes
Activities that are generally meaningful to the client but may be one task of the occupation (Ex: making a sandwich is only part of making lunch)
Performed in the natural setting (physical, social, temporal).
Ex: Preparing lunch at home in noon using one's own kitchen supplies.
Grounded in the philosophy that all people, even the most challenged, are entitled to consideration and human compassion.
*French physician and psychiatrist(1745-1826). 1801-Took over the Bicetre insane asylum and forbids the use of chains and shackles. He removes patients from dungeons, provides them with sunny rooms, and also allows then to exercise on the grounds.
*Work treatment for insane
*Physical exercise, work, music,literature
*English tea and coffee merchant (1732-1822). 1791-A lady, fellow member of the Society of Friends, was placed in the York Asylum and died 6 weeks later.
*1796-Founded the York Retreat the first more humane insane asylum in England.
*The York Retreat became famous around the world as a model of more humane and psychologically-based approaches.
Dr. Benjamin Rush
*Quaker; American Physician (1745-1826)
*1776-Signed the Dec of Independence
* Brought concepts of Moral Treatment to the US.
*Valued activity for creativity and productivity
*Advocated the simplification of diagnosis and treatment of disease
Arts and Crafts Movement
*Began in Europe around 1860 and hits its peak around 1910
*Began in the US around 1876 and hits its peak around 1916.
*Using one's hands to make items connected people to their work, physically and mentally, and thus was healthier.
*Led to the awareness that a disabled person can be productive.
*Founders Jane Addams and Ellen Starr
*Hull House settled in 1930
*Provided medical supervision of crafts for the purpose of improving health and financial independence.
*Patients with neurasthenia
*Personally experienced tuberculosis, foot amputation, and paralysis
*Used occupation as method of treatment
William Rush Dunton, Jr.
*Father of occupational therapy
*Arts and Crafts program at Sheppard Asylum
*Wrote on value of occupation
*1915 Occupational Therapy: A Manual for Nurses
*President and treasurer of the foundation
Eleanor Clarke Slagle
*Mother of occupational therapy
*Worked at state hospitals
*Organized first school
*Held offices in organization
*Eleanor Clarke Slagle Award
*Training of nurses
*Studies in Invalid Occupations (first book on occupational therapy)
Susan Cox Johnson
*Arts and Crafts teacher
*Occupation could be morally uplifting
*Occupation could improve mental and physical state
*Taught occupational therapy
*Advocate for high educational standards
*Vocational Secretary Canadian Military Hospitals Commission
*Included occupational therapy in architectural drawings for institutions for physically disabled
*Active in National Tuberculosis Association
Founders of Occupational Therapy
Herbert Hall, George Barton, William Rush Dunton, Jr., Eleanor Clarke Slagle, Susan Tracy, Susan Cox Johnson, and Thomas Kidner
A "re-education program designed to overcome disorganized habits, to modify other habits, and to construct new ones, with the goal of restoring and maintaining health."
*National Society for the Promotion of Occupational Therapy (1917)
*American Occupational Therapy Association (1921)
Each individual should be seem as a complete and unified whole, not merely a series of parts or problems to be managed.
*Holistic (the whole person/mind, body, spirit)
*Involvement in meaningful activity
*Rhythms and balance
*Work, play, rest, and sleep
World War I
*Reconstruction aides trained to take care of the veterans
*Validation of activity as therapy
*Link between occupational therapy and physical disability
Post WWI through 1930's
*Soldier's Rehabilitation Act
*Civilian Vocational Act
*Great Depression (1930-39)
World War II (1940-1947)
*New demand for occupational therapy
Post WWII (1950-1960's)
*New drugs and technology
*Reductionistic model of practice
*Occupational Therapy Assistant (1958), which began in psychiatry
*Increase in drug and alcohol abuse
*Rehabilitation Act (1973)
*Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975)
*Handicapped Infants and Toddlers Act (1986)
*Technology Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act (1988)
*Social Security Amendments
*Medicare Prospective Payment System
Return to Occupation
*Leaders urging practice to return to Moral Treatment and occupation
*Yerxa. Shannon, Reilly, Fidler, Kielhofner
*Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
*Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1991 and 1997)
*Balanced Budget Act (1997)
Showed the validity of activity as therapy and linked OT with physical disabilities
Soldier's Rehabilitation Act
1918, established a program of vocational rehabilitation for soldiers disabled on active duty
Civilian Vocational Rehabilitation Act
1920, This act provided federal funds to states on a 50-50 matching basis to provide vocational rehabilitation services to civilians with physical disabilities.
1942-1960/The VA hospitals increased in size and number to handle the casualties of war and continued care of veterans.
mid-1950s; Because of the discovery of neuroleptic drugs, it became possible to discharge many clients, eventually leading to this plan.
Was enacted in 1965, and it increased the demand for occupational therapy services.
American Occupational Therapy Foundation
(AOTF); Founded in 1965 to promote research in occupational therapy through financial support.
Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975
This act establishes the right of all children to a free and appropriate education, regardless of handicapping condition.
Handicapped Infants and Toddlers Act
1986/Includes children from 3 to 5 years of age and initiates new early intervention programs for children from birth to 3 years of age.
Technology Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988
Addresses the availability of assistive technology devices and services to individuals with disabilities.
Prospective Payment System (PPS)
A nationwide schedule which was established that delineated what the govn't would pay for each inpatient stay of a Medicare beneficiary.
National Board for Certification in Occupational Therapy (NBCOT)
Subject to certification regulations, an OT practitioner is certified through this professional membership. AOTA membership is separate and voluntary.
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
Provides civil rights to all individuals with disabilities. It guarantees equal access to and opportunity in employment, transportation, public accommodations, state and local government, and telecommunications for people with disabilities.
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
1991/Requires school districts to educate students with disabilities in the least restrictive environment.
Balanced Budget Act of 1997 (BBA)
Established to reduce Medicare spending, create incentives, for the development of managed care plans, encourage enrollment in managed care plans, and limit fee-for-service payment and programs.
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