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Chemistry Final 1st Semester
Terms in this set (72)
a change that produces matter with a different composition than the original matter. For example, when table sugar is heated, it goes through a series of chemical changes. The final product of these changes are solid carbon and water vapor.
Some properties of a material change, but the composition of the material does not change. For example, melting, boiling, freezing, and condensing. They can be classified as reversible or irreversible. For example, melting gallium at 30°C.
Simplest form of matter that has unique properties, with only one capital letter. For example R.
Hey substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion, with more than one capital letter. For example, RSq.
A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically combined. They have an "&". For example, SqR3 & TSq.
Law of conservation of mass
In any physical change or chemical reaction mass is conserved. Mass is neither created nor destroyed.
What can be used to separate mixtures?
Differences in physical properties.
The process that separates a solid from a liquid in a heterogeneous mixture. For example, a colander is used to separate pasta from the water in which it was cooked.
A liquid is boiled to produce a vapor that is then condensed into liquid. For example, a distillation can be used to remove impurities from water.
A given number written as the product of two numbers: A coefficient and 10 raised to a power. For example, 602,000,000 is, 6.02x10^-8.
SI: International System of Measurements: ("Le Systéme International d'Unites") A revised version of the metric system.
Quantity: Length=meter=m. Quantity: Mass=kilogram=Kg. Quantity: Temperature=kelvin=K. Quantity: Time=second=s. Quantity: Amount of substance=mole=mol. Quantity: Luminous=Candela=cd. Quantity: Electric current=ampere=A.
A way to analyze and solve problems using the units or dimensions of the measurements. Problems in which a measurement with one unit is converted to an equivalent measurement with another unit are easily solved using dimensional analysis.
Example of dimensional analysis
Note that the known unit is in the denominator and the unknown unit is in the numerator. 750dg x 1g/10dg=75g.
Measured in comparison to a standard mass of 1Kg, which is the basic SI unit of mass.
A force that measures the pull on a given mass by gravity.
What is the volume of a paperback book 21cm tall, 12cm wide, and 3.5cm thick?
The number of protons is equal to...
The number of electrons.
How to find the number of neutrons
Neutrons = mass number - atomic number
What is atomic mass?
A weighted average of all naturally occurring isotopes based on the percent abundance for each isotope.
The smallest particle of an element that retains its identity in a chemical reaction.
Average mass of the atoms in a naturally occurring sample of the element.
Atomic mass unit (amu)
1/12 of the mass of a Carbon 12 atom.
Electrode with + (anode) charge on one side. On the other side is - charged electrode (cathode). The result was a growing beam, or cathode ray.
Dalton's Atomic Theory
1) All elements are composed of atoms. 2) atoms of the same element are identical, different elements have different atoms. 3) atoms of different elements can chemically combined to form compounds. 4) Chemical reactions occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged, but if they are from one element they are never changed into atoms of another element as a result of a chemical reaction.
Vertical column in the periodic table.
Atoms that have The same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons.
The tiny central core of an Adam, and is composed of proteins and neutrons.
Horizontal rows on the periodic table.
Models of the Atom
Rutherford's planetary model could not explain the chemical properties of elements. Bohr proposed that electrons move only in specific circular paths, or orbits, around the nucleus.
What does the quantum mechanical model determine?
The aloud energies an electron can have and how likely it is to be found in various locations around the nucleus.
Each sub level of a principal energy level corresponds to...
An orbital shape describing where the electron is likely to be found.
Electron arrangement in atoms, three rules.
1) The aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principal, and Hund's rule -tell you how to find the electron configuration's of atoms.
Some actual electron configuration's differ from those assigned using the aufbau principle because...
Half-filled levels are not as stable as filled levels, but they are more stable than other configurations.
Physics and the Quantum Mechanical Model
The wavelength and frequency of light are inversely proportional to each other. When atoms absorb energy, electrons move into higher energy levels. These electrons then lose energy by emitting light when the electrons drop back to lower energy levels.
The light emitted by an electron moving from a higher to a lower energy level has a...
Frequency directly proportional to the energy change of the electron.
Classical mechanics adequately describes the motion of bodies much larger than ____, while ____ ____ describes the motions of subatomic particles and atoms as ____.
Atoms, quantum mechanics, waves.
The fixed energies and electrons can have.
The amount of energy required to move an electron from one energy level to another energy level.
Quantum mechanical model
The modern description of electrons in Adams, it comes from the mathematical solutions to the Schrödinger equation.
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
The height of a wave's crest
Horizontal distance between the crests or between the troughs of two adjacent waves
Speed of light
Or constant "C". 3.00 x 10^8 m/s.
Speed of light = wavelength x frequency. E=planks constant "hc" - frequency.
When atoms absorb energy, electrons move into ____ energy levels these electrons then ____ energy by admitting light when they return to ____ energy levels.
Higher, lose, lower.
Atomic omission spectrum
When atoms release energy, discrete lines, given when excited atom goes to lower energy level.
When atoms absorb energy and absorption spectrum is given one of atom obtains a higher energy level.
As energy increases wavelength ____.
Light and matter exhibit properties of both waves and particles.
Electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first.
States that electrons occupy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible.
Pauli exclusion principle
An atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons. For example, either one or two electrons can occupy an S orbital or a P orbital.
When someone passes through a prism, the different frequencies separate into a spectrum of colors.
The quanta behave as if they were particles. Light quanta are called photons.
The SI unit of cycles per second. The units of frequency are usually cycles per second.
How is the modern periodic table organized?
Elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
How did Mendeleev have arrange the elements and his periodic table?
In order of increasing atomic mass.
What are the three classes of elements?
Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids.
Good conductors of heat and electric current.
In general, nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electric current.
Properties similar to those of metals and nonmetals.
What are the names for the eight representative families/groups? (1A, 2A, 3A, 4A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 8A)
Alkali metals, alkali earth metals, boron family, carbon family, nitrogen family, oxygen family, halogen family, noble gases.
How many electrons are in the highest occupied energy level of 1s^2, 2s^2, 2p^7?
7. It corresponds with the column they are in. For example carbon has a 4+- charge, and oxygen has a 2- charge.
Determine the charge of the ion formed for each of the 8 representative families/groups. (S,P,D,F)
S and P block are representative elements. D block is transition metals. F block is inner transition metals.
Use the periodic table to write electron configuration's in interpret the number of valence electrons.
The number of valence electrons is the same as the column or group number they are in. For example H=1, Be=2, N=5, and F=7.
Shielding affects ionisation energy how?
As number of electrons between outer electrons and nucleus increases outer electrons feel less attraction towards nuclear charge. Lessening pull of nucleus by inner shells of electrons is called shielding.
Describe the properties and characteristics of ionic crystals (i.e., salts).
Most ionic compounds are crystalline solids at room temperature. Ionic compounds generally have high melting points. The component ions in such crystals are arranged in repeating three-dimensional patterns.
Crystalline structure of bonding in metals
Metals are arranged in very compact and orderly patterns. For spheres of identical size, such as metal atoms, there are several closely packed arrangements that are possible.
Sea of electrons
a model for how the valence electrons of metal atoms are mobile and can drift from one part of a metal to another (allows for good conductivity). A sea of drifting valence electrons insulates the metal cations from one another.
No the seven diatomic molecules
Hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine.
One end of the molecule is slightly negative, and the other end is slightly positive.
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