"The Latin West, 1200 - 1500"
Guided Reading Chapter 14
Terms in this set (53)
Historian's name for the territories of Europe that adhered to the Latin rite of Christianity and used the Latin language for intellectual exchange in the period 1200-1500.
Three- Field System
A system of farming developed to be a more productive way of farming during medieval Europe , in which farm land was divided into three fields of equal size. 2/3 of the land was used to grow crops and the 3rd field was used to grow oats. The oats rejuvenated the soil and could be used to feed the plow horses.
A mechanism that harnesses the energy in flowing water to grind grain or to power machinery. Greater efficiency came from channeling water over top of wheel; Dams ensured these wheels a steady flow of water throughout year and in France & England ocean tides where used for power.
A commercial and defensive confederation of the free towns in northern Germany /an association of trading cities in northern Europe; traded extensively in Baltic (including coasts of Prussia, newly conquered by German knights)
Royal guarantees of safe conduct to all merchants turned the regional markets into these.
A medieval organization of crafts workers or trades people such as silversmiths, or of merchants that regulated business practices of its members.
A collection taken up annually in every church in the lain West. It's a fund/offering for the pope.
Support structure located on the exterior of gothic style cathedrals.
Latin West was 1st part of world to establish modern universities; they are degree-gaining corporations specializing in multidisciplinary research & advanced teaching (1300-1500)
A philosophical and theological system, associated with Thomas Aquinas, devised to reconcile Aristotelian philosophy and Roman Catholic theology in the thirteenth century. Theologians sought to synthesize the newly rediscovered philosophical works of Aristotle.
A renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements.
Dante also influenced the literary movement of the
humanists that began in his native Florence in the mid-fourteenth century. The term refers to their interest in
the humanities, the classical disciplines of grammar,
rhetoric, poetry, history, and ethics.
Invented by Johann Gutenberg in 1454; first book was Gutenberg Bible; changed private and public lives of Europeans; used for war declarations, battle accounts, treaties, propaganda; laid basis for formation of distinct political parties; enhanced literacy, people sought books on all subjects
This document, signed by King John of Endland in 1215, is the cornerstone of English justice and law. It declared that the king and government were bound by the same laws as other citizens of England.
Historians' term for the monarchies in France, England, and Spain from 1450 to 1600. The centralization of royal power was increasing within more or less fixed territorial limits. These were monarchies that were modernizing. Only larger or wealthy states such as England, France and Spain could produce Colonial Empires. The kings tried to make the religion, linguistics, and geography of their kingdoms homogeneous. The pope gave the Spanish royal family permission to begin the Spanish Inquisition where non-believers (Jews) were tortured to convert them to Christianity. These new monarchies expanded out of Europe for the following reasons: trade and commerce, the extension of their religion, the extension of power and glory. There were changes in sails and ships that made the ships sail faster. The compass had made its way to Europe that helped with navigation. Steel had also found its way to Europe. Their motivation for these changes was: (1) trade and commerce. (2) Extend religion (more money for the church) (3) extension of power and glory. (4) the use of steal, as weapon and in shipping.
Started by Edward i, first representative government of England, composed of 2 knights from every town, and all the noble and bishops throughout England
The Estates General
France's Legislative body that met infrequently and was overall weak; Represented the different classes; convened for 175 years.
(Roman Catholic Church) Italian theologian and Doctor of the Church who is remembered for his attempt to reconcile faith and reason in a comprehensive theology.
Argued that the most basic religious truths could be proved by logical argument.
English poet remembered as author of the Canterbury Tales (1340-1400)
Venetian merchant and traveler. His accounts of his travels to China offered Europeans a firsthand view of Asian lands and stimulated interest in Asian trade.
The Medici family
Bankers to the Pope. Controlled Florence. Great Patrons (supporters) of the Arts and Sciences. Paid for many great works of art.
The Fugger family
this family from Augsburg, Germany loaned money as part of its business and became wealthy and powerful
Medieval Italian poet wrote Inferno and Divine Comedy. Dealt the influence of the afterlife.
Known as the father of Renaissance Humanism. He lived from 1304-1374 as a cleric and committed his life to humanistic pursuits and careful study of the classics. He resisted writing in the Italian vernacular except for his sonnets, which were composed to his "lady love" who spoke no Latin.
Erasmus of Rotterdam
scholar & humanist, regarded as "the scholar" of Europe & "prince of humanists", NOT REALLY A REFORMER but a PROMOTER OF REFORM
German printer who was the first in Europe to print using movable type and the first to use a press (1400-1468)
An artist who led the way into realism; his treatment of the human body and face replaced the formal stiffness and artificiality that had long characterized the representation of the human body
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who was a founder of the Flemish school of painting and who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting (1390-1441)
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Lorenzo de Medicia (the Magnificent)
"The Magnificent", A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts (helping to grow the Renaissance).
King Philip "the fair"
"The Fair", Created French Parliament with the 3 estates
King of England who raised taxes and punished his enemies without a trial. He is best known for being forced to sign the Magna Carta.
Joan of Arc
French heroine and military leader inspired by religious visions to organize French resistance to the English and to have Charles VII crowned king
Ferdinand and Isabella
During the late 15th century, they became King and Queen of a united Spain after centuries of Islamic domination. Together, they made Spain a strong Catholic nation and also provided funding to overseas exploration, notably Christopher Columbus.
The Black Death
AKA Bubonic Plague; by 1348, this disease ravaged from Italy, Spain, and France to the rest of Europe; transmitted by fleas on rats; considered an epidemic; one in three people died; spread from Asia to middle east; people turned to witchcraft for cures; some beat themselves because they considered the disease God's punishment; Christians blamed Jews; production declined; higher wages; inflation
The "Fourth Crusade"
Ends truce -- Crusaders attack Christian cities to attempt to gain allies and money...it fails and the Pope is furious kills Byzantine empire
the period of European history at the close of the Middle Ages and the rise of the modern world
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
The Great Western Schism
Time when 3 popes claimed to have power and people began to loose faith in the church.
Hundred Years War
Series of campaigns over control of the throne of France, involving English and French royal families and French noble families. England loses and losses half of its land but that land was in France. The negative impact- France became an absolute power. Positive impact- France formed a nation-state. Ended in 1453.
Reconquest of Iberia (Reconquista)
Reconquista, Beginning in the eleventh century, military campaigns by various Iberian Christian states to recapture territory taken by Muslims. In 1492 the last Muslim ruler was defeated, and Spain and Portugal emerged as united kingdoms.
A collection of stories written in Middle-English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey .
Large churches originating in twelfth-century France; built in an architectural style featuring pointed arches, tall vaults and spires, flying buttresses, and large stained-glass windows. \
Written by Thomas Aquinas, it is one of the most notable scholastic works of the medieval period. Aquinas' work founded Christian belief on Aristotelian principles.
a narrative epic poem written by Dante
List consequences of the inefficiency of farming during this time period.
As a consequence of the inefficiency of farming practices and their obligations to landowners, peasants received meager returns for their hard work. Even with the numerous religious holidays, peasants labored fifty-four hours a week in their fields, more than half that time in support of the local nobility. Each noble household typically lived on the labor of fifteen to thirty peasant families.
The Black Death, (1) how did it spread, (2) what were its symptoms and (3) at least 5 social changes as a result.
(1) The disease spread out of Asia through the Mongol invasion as well as through trade contacts. The population explosion of the 13th century was reversed with the enormous death rates in plague-stricken areas. (2) It started with a headache. Then chills and fever, maybe nausea, vomiting, back pain, soreness in arms and legs. Perhaps bright light was too bright to stand. Within a day or two, the swellings appeared. There were hard, painful, burning lumps on the neck, under arms, on inner thighs. Soon they turned black, split open, and began to ooze pus and blood. They may have grown to the size of an orange. (3) The demand for people to work the land was so high that it threatened the manorial holdings. Serfs were no longer tied to one master; if one left the land, another lord would instantly hire them. The lords had to make changes in order to make the situation more profitable for the peasants and so keep them on their land. In general, wages outpaced prices and the standard of living was subsequently raised. As a consequence of the beginning of blurring financial distinctions, social distinctions sharpened. The fashions of the nobility became more extravagant in order to emphasize the social standing of the person wearing the clothing. The peasants became slightly more empowered, and revolted when the aristocracy attempted to resist the changes brought about by the plague. In 1358, the peasantry of northern France rioted, and in 1378 disenfranchised guild members revolted.
5 results of the rapid growth of industry in Europe at this time.
The technological innovations discovered in newly discovered Islamic libraries along with the new found wealth among survivors of the Black Death helped foster an investment in new kinds of business and a growth in industry. Social distinctions sharpened. The fashions of the nobility became more extravagant in order to emphasize the social standing of the person wearing the clothing. The peasants became slightly more empowered. Peasants revolted when the aristocracy attempted to resist the changes brought about by the plague.
How was urban growth linked to the revival of trade and manufacturing? How are the clock and cathedral good symbols of this revival?
An increase in technology, trade, and manufacturing led to urban growth. Northern Italy, Champagne (trade fairs) and Flanders (wool) are examples. Venice emerged as a rich trading center in 1204, had a direct connection with Mongol trade, and Mediterranean galley trade with Constantinople, Beruit and Alexandria. England and Florence had textiles. The clock is a potent symbol of this process because it represents both the European absorption with Eastern technology as well as civic wealth. Cathedrals were the centerpieces of Latin cities and were an important symbol of their prosperity, ingenuity, and religious devotion.
Describe the changes in civic life associated with urban growth in later medieval Europe. Use the document in the Diversity and Dominance section, "Persecution and Protection of the Jews, 1272-1349" in your analysis. What do these documents reveal about the position of Jews in the Latin West?
Social mobility grew from the desire to adjust to market forces and resist imperial authority. Despite the opportunities for some in the cities, poverty was the experience for the majority of urban dwellers. Cities experienced increasing cultural and religious diversity. For instance, they drew small but significant numbers of Jews, who were connected to the growing fields of business and money lending. Despite the protection Jews received they were also subjected to violence and persecution as the document suggests. Guilds regulated business practices and the labor of the working classes while also excluding Jews and reinforcing the divisions of male and female work.
What three closely related transformations led to the rise of new monarchies? Choose a monarchy to illustrate your answer.
The three transformations were (1) monarchs' successes in struggles with their vassals; (2) the development of military technology; and (3) the closer relationship of monarchs with both the commercial elites and the Church. The rate and ways of these transformations, however, differed from state to state. Italy, for instance, did not unit under one powerful monarch. Britain and France struggled through the Hundred Years' War. Britain's monarch reluctantly accepted the Magna Carta. France had less control of the noble vassals, and Spain wa finally united after driving out the remaining Muslims (Reconquista).
Causes of the Hundred Years War
Phillip VI of France declared all English owned lands south of the river Loire confiscated. Edward III of England responded by declaring himself the rightful king of France (he had a strong hereditary claim through his grandmother, which had been overlooked when Phillip VI was declared king in 1328), and invaded.
Combatants of the Hundred Years War
France and England
New types of weapons in the Hundred Years War
New weapons of the hundred years war included longbows, gun powdered weapons, cannons, and handguns.
Results of the Hundred Years War militarily and politically
The use of cavalry and armored knights became less central to warfare as improved bows, arrows, and firearms were devised.
Metal-tipped arrows shot from crossbows penetrated knights' armor. The English longbow could shoot both farther and more rapidly than the crossbow. Firearms improved on Chinese designs. Cannon terrorized cavalry and were effective against walled cities. No longer could noble vassals withstand royal sieges. Hand-held firearms completed the transformation from armored knights to effective infantry. However, a new financing system was necessary for the monarchy to pay for standing armies.