29 terms

Diffusion of Innovation

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Diffusion of Innovation
addresses how ideas, products, and social practices that are perceived as 'new' are spread throughout a society and from one society to another; "the process through which an innovation is communicated through certain channels over time among members of a social system"
More about this theory:
diffusion expands and highly increases the number of people who are exposed to and reached by your intervention (which will strengthen the public health impacts of the interventions); second strategy for intervening at community level, but less theory driven approach and more descriptive process of how behavior tends to change within communities or groups of people; emphasizes how to effectively disseminate information to your target population
three levels:
individual: lifestyle change; organizational: starting programs, changing regulations/protocols/practices,altering personnel roles; community: media, advancing policy, starting initiatives
4 Constructs:
1. Inovation, 2. Communication Channels, 3. Social system, 4. Time
Innovation
an idea, object, or practice that is thought to be new by an individual, organization or community
communication channels:
the means of transmitting the new idea from one person to another
social system
a group of individuals who together adopt the innovation
time
how long it takes to adopt the innovation
5 key attributes affecting speed and extent of innovation's diffusion:
1. relative advantage 2. compatibility 3. complexity 4. trialibility 5. observability
relative advantage
is it better than what it's replacing?
compatibility
does it fit with intended audience?
complexity
is it easy to use?
trialability
can it be tried before making a decision to adopt?
observability
are the results of the innovation observable and easily measurable?
Methods of diffusion:
important to use a variety of channels; process involves opinion leaders receiving information, interpreting and conveying their interpretations as well as message content; formal and informal
formal methods of diffusion
news, public meetings
informal methods of diffusion
word of mouth, subtle placement of product/message
Adoption of message:
1. innovators 2. early adopters 3. early majority adopters 4. late majority adopters 5. laggards
individuals progress through 5 stages:
1. knowledge 2. persuasion 3. decision (accept or reject) 4. implementation 5. confirmation
knowledge:
exposed to innovation but don't know anything about it, nor inclined to learn about it
persuasion
person is interested and seeks info about innovation
decision
weighs advantages/disadvantages and decides whether to adopt or reject innovation
implementation
person determines usefulness of innovation, and uses it based on how useful they think it is
confirmation
finalizes decision to use innovation and uses it to its full extent
innovators
first individuals to adopt, willing to take risks, youngest in age, high social class
early adopters
2nd people to adopt; highest degree of opinion leadership among other adopter categories; communicate with others to adopt, take less risks than innovators but still willing to try it
early majority adopters
adopt after significantly longer time than innovators and early adopters, typically in contact with early adopters
late majority adopters
will adopt after average majority of society does; at first are skeptical but see everyone else adopt it so decide to give it a try
laggards
last to adopt
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