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36 terms

Biology 621A - Evolution

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evolution
the change in a population's inherited traits from generation to generation
adaptation
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce.
variation
Significant deviations from the normal biological form or structure
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better adapted to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than others
artificial selection
process where humans selectively breed organisms to obtain a certain phenotype
Hutton and Lyell
scientists who proposed the Earth was millions of years old due to their geological findings.
George Cuvier
scientist who proposed natural events caused previous animal species to become extinct.
Thomas Malthus
predicted the population would outgrow the food source if restrictions were not put in place
Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection.
fossil record
chronological collection of life's remains in sedimentary rock layers
homologous
having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions
vestigial
body structure that has no function in a present day organism but was useful to an ancestor
paleontology
the study of fossils
catastrophism
proposed by George Cuvier,
Beagle
the ship that Charles Darwin sailed in
gradualism
a model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity
Uniformitarianism
is the idea that the geologic processes that operate today also operated in the past
Hardy-Weinberg principle
theory stating that in the absence of forces that change the proportions of alleles at a give locus, the original genotype proportions will remain constant from one generation to the next, in a large population with random mating
Hardy-Weinberg Equation
p^2 + 2pq+q^2=1
Genetic drift
the change in frequencies of particular alleles in a small population, caused by chance alone
gene flow
movement of new genes into a gene pool. This movement can reduce difference between populations that were caused by isolation and genetic drift.
non-random mating
any situation in which individuals do not choose mates on a random basis, such as mating in base don proximity, relatedness, or similarity of phenotype
mutation
Permanent change in the genetic material of an organism
founder effect
cause of genetic drift due to a small group of individuals colonizing a new area; the small group probably will not contain all the genes represented in the parent population
bottleneck effect
occurs when a population is greatly reduced by events such as natural disaster or over hunting, resulting in certain alleles being overrepresented and other alleles being underrepresented or absent in the population due to chance
inbreeding
mating between closely related partners
assortative mating
type of non-random mating in which individuals choose partners that have similar phenotype such as size
sexual selection
selection for mating based in general on competition between males and choices made by females (ie. humans)
sexual dimorphism
the difference between males and females of the same species
chemical evolution
theory that life on Earth occurred began as the natural result of the evolution of inorganic matter
panspermia theory
suggest that life originated elsewhere in the universe and then migrated to our planet
Gaia theory
view that earth is a living super organism which is maintained and regulated by life on its surface
intelligent design theory
suggests that life mechanisms are too complex to have evolved by chance, must have been directed by an unidentified supernatural intelligence
symbiogenesis
the merging of organisms into new collectives; development of a new species through close association of organisms of different species that is of mutual benefit
Stanley Miller
designed an experiment to test the Oparin-Haldane theory by preparing an atmosphere similar to early earth with electric sparks as an energy source. Resulted in the production of several organic compounds