27 terms



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Study of interactions among living things and their surroundings.
biotic factors
Living organisms in a community.
abiotic factors
Non-living components of an environment, such as temperature, humidity, salinity.
A group of organisms of the same species living in the same area.
A collection of interacting populations within a given ecosystem.
The combination of all the communities in an environment.
The part of the earth's crust, waters, and atmosphere that supports life.
interspecific competition
Competition that occurs between members of different species.
intraspecific competition
Competition that occurs between members of the same species.
A close interaction between two or more different species.
Interspecific interaction that benefits both species.
An interaction between species that benefits one but neither helps or harms the other.
A symbiotic interaction in which one organism derives its nourishment from its host.
An interaction in which the one organisms kills and eats the prey.
keystone species
A plant or animal that plays a unique and crucial role in the way an ecosystem functions.
carrying capacity
The maximum population that the environment can sustain.
exponential growth
Population growth that results in a J-shaped curve.
logistic growth
Population growth that creates an S-shaped curve.
limiting factors
Things that limit the growth of a population.
Species that are usually density-dependent and live in populations near carrying capacity.
Species that are usually density-independent and can experience exponential growth.
type I survivorship
Life strategy that usually experiences high survival in early and middle life, followed by a rapid decline in survivorship in later life.
type II survivorship
Life strategy that experiences roughly a constant mortality rate regardless of age.
type III survivorship
Life strategy that experiences the greatest mortality early in life, with relatively low rates of death for those surviving.
primary succession
The establishment and development of an ecosystem that was previously uninhabited.
secondary succession
The reestablishment of a damage ecosystem, where the soil was left intact.
anthropogenic changes
Changes induced by human activity that can disrupt an ecosystem.